ASC 2024:Papers with Abstracts

Abstract. The construction industry in the US is projected to see tremendous growth in the coming decade. However, decreasing high school graduation rates may pose challenges in meeting the increasing demands for a qualified construction workforce. This underscores the need to strengthen the construction management (CM) education platforms across all higher education institutions to equip future graduates with the necessary knowledge and skills. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative co-teaching model between a university and community colleges to enhance the articulation of the University’s four-year Construction Management and the Community Colleges’ two-year associate degree program. The co-teaching initiative aims to leverage the unique strengths and expertise of each institution to provide students with a comprehensive educational experience grounded in both theory and practice. The study employs a mixed methods approach, including quizzes, surveys, and direct observations, to evaluate the impact of the co-teaching model on student engagement, knowledge retention, and learning outcomes. The paper outlines the design, implementation procedures, and data analysis plans to assess the effectiveness of the collaborative approach. The framework provides a model for integrating industry trends, and diverse instructional perspectives to strengthen construction management education through university-community college collaborations. The study has implications for developing innovative pedagogies to prepare construction management graduates for the evolving real-world demands.
Abstract. This pilot study explored Dual Enrollment (DE) and Advanced Placement (AP) credit earned by 130 first-year students into a construction management (CM) degree program at Auburn University. 70% of credits were earned through dual enrollment; 30% of the credits earned were in English Composition, and this credit counted toward the CM degree program. However, for math, history, science, and other social science classes, relatively small percentages of the overall credits earned counted toward the CM degree. These findings suggest that DE and AP credit can be a valuable way for construction management students to advance in their studies. However, some courses may not be accepted by all universities, and some courses may not align with the specific requirements of CM programs. Given the continued rise in DE and AP credit coupled with the high cost of education, it is important for CM programs to explore ways to assist students in utilizing credit earned. This may include expanding the credit offered and providing students with personalized academic advising to help them plan their coursework. By taking these steps, CM programs can help students to make the most of their DE and AP credit.
Abstract. The need for construction management programs to maintain a curriculum that is relevant to current and future industry needs is a regular challenge. Needs Assessment is a systematic approach to evaluating curriculum to determine the most appropriate structure. The most accessible option for conducting a curricular needs assessment is to do it within the program among the faculty and administration. While it is essential for these stakeholders to be key participants, their view includes only a portion of the critical perspective. A holistic evaluation should include multiple perspectives from key stakeholders, namely faculty, students, and industry. However, little literature on needs assessment incorporates the student perspective. This paper reports on results of employing a focus group approach to gain insight from recent graduates of a CM program to determine the essential activities required of new graduates in the construction management industry within their first three years. Results from two different focus group sessions indicate recent CM graduates conduct numerous technical activities, but more importantly a strong set of soft skills activities.
Abstract. The need for construction management programs to maintain a curriculum that is relevant to current and future industry needs is a regular challenge. The most accessible option for conducting a curriculum needs assessment is to do it within the program among the faculty and administration. While it is essential for these stakeholders to be key participants, their view includes only a portion of the critical perspective. A holistic evaluation should include multiple perspectives from key stakeholders, namely faculty, students, and industry. However, little literature on needs assessment incorporates the student perspective. This paper reports on results of employing a focus group approach to gain insight from recent graduates of a CM program to determine the essential knowledge and skills required of new graduates in the construction management industry. Results from two different focus group sessions indicate recent CM graduates should possess a suite of technical skills but more importantly a strong set of soft skills.
Abstract. evolutionizing the construction industry, Three-Dimensional Concrete Printing (3DCP) technologies offer a practical remedy for material and labor shortages, mitigating supply chain risks while simultaneously ushering in a wave of new job opportunities demanding advanced skills. The technology is complex though and teaching practices in construction education and professional development need to address the new skills requirements for working with the new technology. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of 3DCP education and 3DCP educational needs and opportunities in the construction industry. This paper provides a review of existing efforts in the education of 3DCP. It also explains a case study of the design and construction process of a 3D printed affordable house focusing on the 3DCP education needs and the training approach in the case study project. The research results provide an understanding of current efforts in 3DCP training, potentials of 3DCP education in construction, and the path forward for required education of 3DCP in the construction industry.
Abstract. As technology reshapes the construction industry, the need to equip future professionals with essential digital skills becomes crucial. This study explores the integration of drone-mediated photogrammetry and Scan-to-BIM processes in undergraduate construction management education. The study involved introducing students to drone technology, Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry, and Scan-to-BIM processes. Specifically, students were tasked with generating point clouds from drone-captured images, examining the effects of different flight parameters on point cloud accuracy, and then converting point cloud data into building information models (i.e., Scan-to-BIM). Results indicate that students developed a strong understanding of Scan-to-BIM processes and their practical applications, being able to recognize the benefits and potential applications of such processes. By incorporating these advanced digital tools and techniques into construction education, this study contributes to the industry's readiness for the evolving landscape of construction and ensures that future professionals are more competitive and well-prepared for the construction industry's digital transformation.
Abstract. Construction management (CM) students need more feedback from their teachers—feedback that is timely, individualized, informational, and edifying. Unsurprisingly, this is very difficult for CM teachers to provide given their constraints in both time and resources. This paper describes one way to offer CM students more feedback using a novel pedagogical method called “Feedback Chats” that applies elements of the flipped classroom and the fishbowl teaching strategy to free up class time for students and teachers to connect individually and regularly. Feedback Chats were first implemented in an undergraduate CM course called Housing and Land Development located at a major university in the southeast United States. Based on thematically analyzed data from end-of-course surveys administered by The University, students felt that Feedback Chats were effective, and they appreciated the direct and routine student-teacher contact that the teaching method provided. Key takeaways from this exploratory study are that feedback needs to be (1) timely, even before an assignment is submitted, if possible, (2) spoken, not written, and (3) committed to by the teacher ahead of time. (4) CM Teachers should recognize that even with Feedback Chats, class time will always be scarce.
Abstract. Lean is practiced by the design and construction industry for two decades, but it is not a part of the mainstream curriculum in US-based universities. This is the first gap. The Lean practitioner community affiliated with the Lean Construction Institute (LCI) produces many resources each year that can be used for Lean education and training. However, academia is not always aware of the resources produced by the LCI’s practitioner community. This is the second gap. In this study, both gaps are addressed while fulfilling each other. This study identified potential integration points for Lean in the design and construction programs by providing examples of mapping between existing LCI’s learning resources to their respective student learning outcomes (SLOs) and curriculum guidelines. By looking into different accreditations such as ACCE, ABET, and NCARB, we found that Lean can be integrated with design and construction curriculums in three ways. One addresses project-related Lean implementation areas; two addresses specific Lean Construction systems or methods; and three addresses Lean Construction courses. Selection of the most suitable approach will depend on the program at the US universities and how their classes are designed or structured towards graduation, both at the graduate and undergraduate levels.
Abstract. This paper will discuss pathways women have experienced in selecting a major in higher education Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related industries such as construction management. This study examines two current students and three alumni stories on the journey that led them to where they are today in their desired profession of construction management. Qualitative interview questions were asked of these women on how prior childhood and young adult experiences shaped their decisions and the obstacles they experienced in degree selection. The literature reviewed for this paper aimed to connect women seeking or currently participating in STEM careers to the experiences encountered by participants in this study. Three themes were built from the interviews: design-build, influences, belonging, and self-efficacy. It was found creativity in design and building interests as a child and as a young adult impacted degree selection. Influences from family, peers, teachers, counselors, and mentors were found to affect potential students' pathways. The study also found it essential that students need an authentic connection to belonging to the environment, and self-efficacy was needed.
Abstract. This study presents the state of Virtual Reality (VR) utilization by construction educators in the US. To gain insight into how educators use VR, a survey was conducted of educators affiliated with the Associated Schools of Construction. Survey responses indicated varying levels of familiarity with VR technology, with the majority exhibited diverse engagement levels, ranging from occasional to frequent use, highlighting VR's adaptability in construction education. The study delved into specific teaching areas where VR was employed, revealing "Methods, materials, and equipment for construction" as the most common application, with a quarter of participants using VR for this purpose. "Construction safety" closely followed, underlining its significance in safety education. In terms of technology and hardware, Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) were the preferred choice, with Hololens being the most popular hardware among HMDs. These findings offer practical guidance for educators and program administrators seeking to maximize VR's role in construction education.
Abstract. The rapid advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) hold the promise of transformative benefits across industries, including construction. To navigate this changing landscape, construction students must not only harness AI's potential but also grasp its ethical considerations and potential challenges. As such, there is a growing imperative within construction education to foster AI literacy among prospective professionals. This study developed and integrated an "AI in Construction" course module into an undergraduate construction management course. The primary goal is to equip students with AI literacy, achieved through a comprehensive approach that encompasses both theoretical knowledge, covering essential AI concepts and their applications in construction, and practical hands-on experiences, exemplified by a project focused on computer vision for personal protective equipment (PPE) inspection. Results from the course module implementation show that students gained a basic understanding of AI fundamentals after the module, such as dataset annotation, model development, deployment, and evaluation. Qualitative feedback indicates students were motivated to explore further AI-related topics in construction, and several topics that are of their interest were identified. These findings affirm the effectiveness of the proposed module and offer valuable insights for further development and enhancement of AI-related modules in construction education.
Abstract. Skip the Grid is an interdisciplinary community service project-based senior project, with the pilot implementation completed in March of 2022, a second project completed in March 2023, and a 3rd project planned for March 2024. Facilitated through the non-profit Heart of America (HOA) and funded through the generous support of SOLV Energy and several industry and community sponsors, the project was completed by an interdisciplinary group of 26 undergraduate students and three faculty from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly) over a two- year period. The project improved energy equity in the Navajo Nation by providing off-grid solar energy to 38 families of school age children living without electricity. This project comprised the design, planning, and installation of the off-grid solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems consisting of PV panels, a battery with inverter and load center, and lights. The students on the project prepared for the implementation, collaborating across academic disciplines with industry partners and the community to provide complete working PV systems to families of school age children, primarily in the Red Mesa and Chinle Unified School Districts. This paper documents students’ lessons learned to help other students and faculty initiate similar service projects in indigenous communities.
Abstract. An ongoing concern in the construction industry is the lack of trained skilled workers. Attracting young people to the industry will be vital as the current workforce ages out of the industry. Understanding the younger population’s motivation regarding career choice is important in developing opportunities to expose them to the field. One element to be considered is how parents or guardians might influence their children’s choice to learn about careers in construction. This study used surveys and a grounded theory design to identify reasons or motivations why a parent or guardian chose to send their child to a summer camp focusing on the construction industry. A three- step coding process was used. Open coding identified the reasons the parents/guardians registered their children for the camp. Axial coding identified three themes with two specifically related to the construction industry. Selective coding further identified the parent/guardian’s specific reasons within those two areas of motivation. These were identified directly related to a career in construction: 1) “Spark Interest in Construction Career Option” with an introduction to the construction industry and 2) to provide a better understanding of the “Specific Construction Field and Trades.”
Abstract. Project based learning (PBL) for construction education has established positive learning outcomes for students in Construction Management programs. Business management research has shown increased Positive Affect (PA) and lower Negative Affect (NA) align with positive business behaviors. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether implementation of PBL in Construction Education using a real-world capital improvement project with requirements for development of pre-construction deliverables would have an impact on student participants’ Positive Affect and or Negative Affect toward the real-world Owner, Customer, and Users of the subject project. Throughout the PBL module, students engaged with project stakeholders through meetings, discussions, and correspondence to develop the capital improvement project deliverables of a project scope, schedule, estimate, and programing documents. Students completed a pre and post survey to see if their PA and or NA would be changed after the completion of the PBL module. At the conclusion of the project based learning module, the researcher found increased Positive Affect toward the owners and decreased Negative Affect toward the owners, requesters, and users.
Abstract. This pilot study addresses the critical challenge of providing timely and comprehensive feedback on technical reports in Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) education. The significance of effective writing skills in the AEC industry is paramount for technical reports. Traditional methods of evaluation and feedback are time-consuming, leading to a deficiency in students' exposure to writing practice and hindering their holistic skill development. This study introduces a Large Language Model (LLM)-based System for Real-time Technical Writing Review in AEC, aiming to assess the reliability of LLMs in offering constructive feedback and grading for technical reports, focusing on Construction Capstone Projects. The proposed system aligns with pedagogical frameworks, such as Writing Across the Curriculum and AI Across the Curriculum, generative learning theory, and the Feedback Model. This model is applied Construction Capstone Project at the University of Florida, focusing on targeted writing assignments. Preliminary results indicate the model's ability to evaluate sustainability aspects of projects, providing detailed criteria-based feedback. This pilot study aims to lay the groundwork for an AI-assisted system tailored for AEC education, offering real-time, personalized feedback to enhance students' writing skills. The findings hold implications for researchers, students, and educators seeking innovative solutions to address the challenges in technical writing education within AEC.
Abstract. Sustainability is crucial for minimizing environmental impact, ensuring the responsible use of resources, and creating resilient and socially conscious spaces that contribute to harmonious coexistence between the natural, built, and social environments. Because sustainability principles are embedded across the full life cycle of the built environment, sustainability should be an integral part of construction and civil engineering-based curriculum. This research performed an analysis of construction and civil engineering program curriculum to explore where sustainability is being taught, what types of content have been developed, and how prominent a role it plays across the curriculum. The results showed that although generally acknowledged in program descriptions as a prominent industry practice, many programs do not explicitly acknowledge sustainability within course titles or descriptions. Other institutions generally use it as a coupled descriptor for other key built environment topics, such as materials or infrastructure. Programs that seem to have most effectively incorporated sustainability have made a deliberate effort to emphasize it beyond just trendy terminology. This paper identifies trends in sustainability education and provides examples of how programs explicitly focus on sustainability. The results of this research can help generate ideas for strengthening sustainability education within built environment-based curriculum.
Abstract. While it is common for universities to track employment rates for recent graduates, it is not as common for universities to track the longevity of the initial job placement. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of experiential learning for construction management students, but there is less information available about whether and how industry experience prior to graduation may impact the longevity of the initial full-time job. This study involved a survey of alumni about their industry experience prior to graduation and the longevity of their initial full-time position. Descriptive statistics indicate that students who had prior experience with their full-time employer were more likely to still be working for that full-time employer than those who had no prior experience with the company prior to graduation. The results also indicate that those with multiple internship experiences, as well as experiences with multiple companies, are more likely to still be working for their full-time employer than those who did not. The results of this study can be useful to those who advise students about internships and full-time job placement, as well as companies who are seeking to improve retention.
Abstract. In 2020, the Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) established a relationship with ENR to provide free subscriptions to students and faculty. This collaboration grew to include the development of the ASC ENR Student Edition published four times a year highlighting case studies. This introductory, pilot study sought to explore student perceptions of experience, engagement, and learning from the case studies. Seventy-six senior construction management students at three universities were assigned case studies specifically related to ongoing learning. Students completed an 18-question Qualtrics survey regarding their experiences. Results indicated strong perceived value by students. 76% of students reported satisfaction with the case studies as part of their learning experience. Additionally, 86% reported strong connection to classroom material. However, the survey highlighted areas for improvement. For example, students cited amplified value of the case study when active discussion was included after students considered the questions. The data pointed toward a need for faculty to be better trained on how best to use case studies in the classroom, as well as the need to include discussion and additional related sources. Overall, the results of this pilot study suggested that the ENR case studies are a valuable tool for students in construction management courses.
Abstract. This study explores the impact of integrating industry guest speakers into United States Construction Management (CM) programs on student learning. Combining a primary survey and action research, the study explores the effect of industry guest speakers on students’ educational experiences and the effective approaches to improve student learning. The results indicate that industry guest speakers enhance students’ understanding of the construction industry and enrich their learning. Moreover, a thematic analysis employing inductive coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative feedback from open-ended questions from the primary survey. The findings reveal that students favor interactive formats, such as hands-on workshops and Q&A sessions, over traditional lectures. They strongly desire real-world examples to connect theory with practical application, emphasizing the need for guest lecture content to be pertinent to their CM coursework. Students also advocate for more frequent guest speaker appearances across all CM courses. The study acknowledges the potential for sample size expansion, recognizing its influence on data outcomes. As more participants are expected to join the survey, results may evolve. These findings offer insights for improving guest speaker integration in CM programs to align with students’ desire for enhanced learning experiences.
Abstract. The construction industry is increasingly harnessing sensing technologies to overcome manual data collection limitations and address the need for advanced data analysis. This places an aggravated demand for associated skills to interpret sensor data. Yet, a substantial gap exists between the level of academic preparation and the actual needs of the industry, leading to an underprepared workforce. In this study, ActionSens, a Block-Based Programming Environment, is implemented as an educational tool that combines sensor data from Inertial Measurement Units with machine learning algorithms. This integration enables the classification of construction activities, offering construction students a platform to explore and learn about sensor data analytics. However, in a pedagogical setting, an enhanced learning experience can be achieved through the integration of automated classification models that intelligently detect learners’ focus with the potential to provide context-specific support. This study utilizes 19 construction students’ eye-tracking data to train and evaluate machine learning models to detect learners’ visual focus on specific Areas of Interest within ActionSens. Ensemble, Neural Network, and K-Nearest Neighbor performed the best for both raw and SMOTE-oversampled datasets. The Ensemble had an edge in recognizing Areas of Interest, achieving top precision, recall, F1-score, and AUC in the oversampled data.
Abstract. With rising interest in innovative construction methodologies, global construction companies are actively exploring emerging sensing technologies and employing data analytics techniques to draw insights and improve their operations. While numerous educational disciplines employ Block-based Programming Interfaces to enhance domain-specific data-related inquiry and visualization skills, the construction sector has yet to fully explore this practical approach. Introducing block interfaces in construction education may overwhelm newcomers with excessive cognitive load. Past research has primarily relied on subjective measures, overlooking objective indicators for assessing cognitive responses to block interfaces’ interaction elements. This study evaluates the cognitive load induced using InerSens, a Block Programming Interface designed to address authentic construction challenges in ergonomic risk assessment. Electroencephalography is utilized to measure cognitive load, and the results are compared to those of a traditional tool, Excel. Theta Power Spectral Density in the frontal brain region, an indicator of cognitive load, demonstrates that in four out of six tasks, InerSens incurs lower cognitive load than Excel. The findings of this study underscore the potential of InerSens as a viable tool in managing cognitive load efficiency, paving the way for more effective and streamlined sensor data analytics learning experiences for future construction professionals.
Abstract. The construction industry has witnessed a significant increase in the use of modular construction, given its ability to save time and reduce project costs. However, while modular construction is relatively safer than traditional construction methods, workers are still exposed to hazards that lead to injuries and fatalities. Few studies have focused on identifying the safety risks linked to the process of manufacturing, transporting, and installing modular structures. Therefore, the present study describes research on the safety risks associated with modular construction and the development of safety training resources. Specifically, this study focused on: (1) identifying safety risk factors and (2) developing training resources for mitigating these risk factors. The aim of the study was achieved through a detailed review of existing studies, a comprehensive analysis of archival data, interviews with safety professionals, and user assessment of training resources. The findings revealed that 70% of fatalities occur during the manufacturing phase of construction. Additionally critical safety risks identified included incidents such as falling loads, jack slippage incidents, lack of fall arrest systems implementation and equipment failures within construction projects. The study contributes to knowledge and practice by generating insight that could be used to improve the safety of workers in the modular construction industry.
Abstract. This paper describes the first phase of developing a new graduate studies course that focusses on the soft skills associated with the effective functioning of construction project teams. An examination of the literature regarding the need for the course is compared to the expectations of industry and a gap between employer needs and graduate capabilities is identified. The paper describes the processes involved in developing a course to fill the gap including securing funding, finding appropriate expertise, establishing the course aim and learning outcomes, designing the structure, determining the pedagogical approach, assessment strategy, and preparation for delivery. The paper concludes with an explanation of the next steps in the second phase.
Abstract. Educational content in the field of construction is delivered in numerous ways. One particular format is a type of short duration, intensive training known as a ‘Boot Camp’. Identifying the components of established industry boot camps to determine an idea of cost, content, format and method, and how these contribute to successful trainings will help facilitate the reproduction of these successes in other settings. This paper provides an overview of boot camps, including the various implementations across academia and industry. It utilizes the experiences of the author attending two separate industry boot camps, and the deployment of a brief survey in an attempt to determine the prevalence, format, and successful implementation of boot camp style trainings in industry settings. The initial results from the survey are limited, but coupled with the in-person observations made, a preliminary indication of implementation in industry is observed.
Abstract. Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) aim to bring equity to education and support the development of a diverse workforce to address numerous challenges. COVID-19 significantly impacted academia and institutions, including MSI. This research focused on how AEC educators affiliated with MSI were impacted by Online Learning Environment (OLE) proficiency and technology associated with COVID-19 impacts. To determine how educators were affected, an electronic survey was sent to universities within the US. The survey was sent to two population sets of Construction educators and Architecture and Engineering educators, about six months apart. The survey queried AEC educators about their teaching experience, teaching load, proficiency in online content delivery, university policies, concerns over the online delivery of courses, and ability to deliver AEC education online. To determine differences between MSI and non-MSI respondents, the over 400 responses from the survey were compared with the 800 institutions classified as MSI. Quantitative analyses were performed on multiple choice questions, and qualitative analyses were performed on open-ended questions to identify the top three education concerns. Research previously determined concerns for delivering all online courses, like a lack of faculty-peer interaction and peer-to-peer interaction, and structural university-level concerns, but not from the MSI perspective which is required.
Abstract. The construction industry employs 7% of the global workforce and contributes 13% to the global Gross Domestic Product. In the United States, it significantly affects the lives of a substantial portion of the population. However, the industry grapples with challenges such as declining productivity, workplace safety, and work disputes, necessitating the intervention of construction project managers. To identify training gaps and link qualified construction project managers with relevant projects, it is necessary to understand the competencies required for construction project managers. Through a study, we identified 21 skills necessary for construction project managers and their associated knowledge areas and personality characteristics. To gauge the importance of these competencies, we developed a survey including 672 ranking questions, and proposed an innovative design framework for dividing the lengthy questionnaire to present 21 ranking questions to each participant randomly and evenly. Next, we collected the data from 2,016 academics in relevant fields worldwide. This paper highlights how crucial each knowledge area/personality characteristic is for the ability to create construction project cost estimates. The findings can assist the construction academia in directing their efforts toward key competency development areas, scaffolding courses, and planning curricula to the real needs of the worldwide workforce.
Abstract. This research presents a profile of the sought-after competencies of construction managers in leading United Kingdom (UK) construction organizations. In doing so, the work contextualizes the construction organizations influence in terms of revenue and employability; conducts a textual analysis of interpersonal and technical competencies from construction manager job advertisements to ascertain the specific competencies desired by construction organizations; and provides a ranking of said competencies to establish a competencies hierarchy in order to inform curriculum development processes.
Research findings demonstrate that interpersonal competencies have around 70% importance within the role of construction manager. There exists; however, a prevalent vernacular imprecision within the job advertisements about the specific technical competencies for the role exist. Specifically, the lack of digital-esque skills is profound. Thus, a misalignment is present between current educational provision and industry practice regarding the core foundational competencies required of the construction management profession.
This research constitutes an attempt to conduct a textual analysis of descriptive metadata contained within construction manager job advertisements from leading UK construction organizations. Emergent findings revealed specific competencies that are essential to the core of the modern construction manager’s role.
Abstract. Construction surveying is part of the core curriculum in construction degree programs. Focusing on teaching the surveying fundamentals, instrument use and practice, and more importantly, the interpretation and communication of surveying outcomes in different stages of construction projects, these programs have a critical mission to train the future workforce of construction professionals competent in surveying. As a preliminary effort to explore the status of surveying education in construction programs, this systematic review aims to scrutinize the existing literature on construction surveying education, highlighting trends and developments in pedagogical approaches, technological integration, industry demands, and academic standards. First, a set of qualifying criteria is developed, articles are searched from scholarly databases, and then the articles are screened using a machine learning tool. In the final step, the articles are reviewed to determine their fit into the topic. The findings highlight key themes: blended learning, emerging technology, evolving industry needs, and learning advancements, where most of the scholarly works direct their efforts. This study adds to the body of knowledge of surveying education literature by providing a comprehensive analysis of evolving skillsets and pedagogical strategies that are shaping the future of construction surveying education.
Abstract. This research focused on assessing the effectiveness of Virtual Reality (VR) as a tool for aiding students in grasping the concept of pull planning. In real-world scenarios, professionals from various trades contribute their expertise and project knowledge to establish commitments. Students, lacking substantial industry experience, face difficulties in comprehending pull planning without oversimplification. The proposed solution was an immersive VR visualization linked to the master schedule, allowing students to visualize site conditions during pull planning exercises. The study involved grouping students and equipping them with VR headsets, simulating different trade contractors engaged in pull planning overseen by a moderator. Findings suggest that VR enhances students' understanding of pull planning and also helps them identify additional issues like logistical challenges.
Abstract. Concern that increasing student enrollments and larger class sizes are impacting student learning motivated faculty at a 4-year public university in the Southeastern USA to perform a mixed-method study to examine the effect of a Flipped Classroom Model (FCM) on required course within a Construction Management program. The study targeted 120 students enrolled in both on-campus (45 students) and online (75 students) classrooms. While the online students were taught asynchronously using a traditional lecture-based classroom model, the on- campus students were taught using an FCM. Thus, the online students served as a control group, while the on- campus students served as a study group. Both online and on-campus students were taught by the same instructor using the same materials and assessments. Student academic performance was measured using several assignments, with additional qualitative data collected through both pre-implementation and post-implementation surveys. Data show a significant improvement in both the distribution and average assignments scores in the study group. The study also reveals several interesting trends regarding student reactions to flipped learning, the importance of self-directed learning, and the role of technology in strengthening student learning and problem- solving abilities.
Abstract. In the evolving landscape of construction management education, the integration of technology, especially Artificial Intelligence (AI), is reshaping traditional teaching methodologies. This study explores the effectiveness of AI-enabled and traditional digital construction cost estimation software in enhancing learning outcomes for 3rd-year undergraduate construction management students. We compare two software tools, Kreo, which utilizes AI for automated quantity takeoff, and On-Screen Takeoff (OST), a digital estimation software, to examine their impacts on students' learning efficiency and accuracy in cost estimation. Employing a mixed-method approach, the research involved practical assignments using both tools, followed by a survey to gather students' feedback on their experiences. Key metrics such as time taken to complete assignments and precision of estimations were analyzed. The results indicated a notable difference in time efficiency and user preference between the two software, with implications for integrating AI tools in construction management curricula. The study also highlights the challenges students face, primarily due to their unfamiliarity with the software and the limitations of AI in processing outdated drawings. These findings contribute to the broader discourse on the role of AI in educational settings, suggesting a need for curriculum adaptations to include such innovative technologies. The study's insights are vital for educators and curriculum developers aiming to equip future construction professionals with relevant technological competencies.
Abstract. 3-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Model (BIM) can help students’ learning in Construction Management (CM) courses. 3D models can help students visualize the information from plans in format of 2D into 3D. Due to this benefit, 3D models have been used in diverse CM courses, and the effectiveness of 3D models in diverse CM courses have been proven to be positive. However, the usage of 3D models in estimating courses has not been clearly proven by existing literatures. Furthermore, accurate estimating requires multiple estimating tasks starting with visualizing building components. There is no existing study on how effective the usage of 3D models is for each of the estimating sub-tasks. This study aimed to explore effectiveness of 3D models in estimating related tasks through students’ perception on effectiveness of 3D models in an estimating course at a 4-year college in the U.S. The results of this study show that overall, the 3D models were effective in all the estimating tasks. Also, ‘visualizing building components’, ‘locating building components’, and ‘identifying building components' are the estimating sub-tasks in which the 3D models were the most effective.
Abstract. This paper presents a detailed case study of a comprehensive program review for a Construction and Facilities Management (CFM) baccalaureate degree at a large private university. Addressing the necessity of aligning educational programs with current industry and academic needs, the review process involved extensive stakeholder engagement, industry consultation, and curriculum realignment with updated accreditation standards. It identifies key changes made to the program, including the introduction of flexible emphasis tracks, the integration of cross-cutting curricular themes, and adjustments to program course offerings to enhance students' educational experiences. These strategic updates aim to equip students with relevant skills for current and future industry demands, demonstrating a proactive approach to curriculum development in higher education.
Abstract. This paper presents a case study of the implementation of a combined peer-to-peer learning and flipped classroom approach in a course within a baccalaureate degree program in Construction Project Management. In a flipped classroom, students review the learning materials before class, complete lower-level cognitive tasks outside of the classroom, and engage in higher-level cognitive tasks during class time. While there are numerous advantages to flipping the classroom compared to traditional teaching, the strategy becomes ineffective if students cannot complete the assigned tasks before class and lack motivation to participate in higher-level learning during the class. To ensure motivation and continuous engagement, a combination of strategies was employed, including peer-to-peer learning and teaching, granting credits for classroom participation and peer evaluation, and establishing milestones for continuous evaluation of outputs. Over the years, the percentage of students who agreed that the course's delivery method provided opportunities for active participation in discussions and collaborative activities increased from 80% to 100%. Similarly, the percentage of students who completed the readings and homework on time increased from 85% to 100%.
Abstract. This study evaluated the impact of Augmented Reality (AR) on collaboration and problem-solving in online construction management education. The research was conducted with 60 students, and AR's effectiveness was compared with traditional visualization methods such as 2D and 3D models. The study utilized iPad and HoloLens for AR implementations. Using different visualization tools, participants worked in pairs and completed various construction-related tasks, including preconstruction, construction, and post-construction. The main focus was on measuring collaboration efficiency, task completion time, and accuracy, particularly emphasizing how AR can enhance online collaborative skills. The results of the ANOVA with repeated measures indicate that AR, primarily through the use of HoloLens, significantly improves collaboration compared to traditional methods. Although task completion accuracy remained the same across all methods, AR notably reduced the time required to complete tasks. These findings suggest that AR has the potential to significantly benefit online construction management education, offering a more interactive and practical learning experience. However, the study acknowledges certain limitations, such as excluding other visualization technologies and using AR devices in experiments. The research highlights the potential of AR to improve spatial and temporal understanding and collaboration in educational settings, especially in the field of construction management.
Abstract. While technology adoption promises benefits like cost savings, safety improvements, and enhanced collaboration, the construction sector traditionally lags in adopting these innovations, leading to sustained inefficiencies. The emergence of Construction 4.0, aligned with Industry 4.0 principles, integrates emerging technologies to revolutionize design, construction, and asset management. Amidst these advancements, the construction workforce, particularly students in architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) programs, plays a pivotal role in industry transformation and technology advancement. While digital technologies and construction innovation are widely accepted in construction education, it is unclear how much such acceptance will translate into students’ future usage of construction technology when they enter the industry. Utilizing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) framework, the study aims to predict and understand students' technology adoption, providing valuable insights for enhancing current education on construction technology and preparing the future workforce for industry advancements. This study distributed surveys to AEC students, and 88 valid data were obtained and analyzed. It was found that students’ effort expectancy and behavioral intention vary across different educational levels and working experiences. The results emphasized the significance of persistence in incorporating the construction technology curriculum in construction educational programs.
Abstract. Recognizing a severe workforce shortage, the construction industry is now keen on diversifying its talent pool, particularly by attracting female students to construction science, engineering, or management (CM) programs. Despite previous efforts to engage female students in construction, they have not yielded the desired results. To address this issue, this study created a series of stories about women in construction, drawing from interviews with over 30 women currently active in the field. These narratives aim to inspire more female students to consider careers in construction and boost female participation. The stories, integrated with interview content, were disseminated online and subsequently assessed by 53 female undergraduate students. The findings indicated a positive impact, revealing that the stories played a pivotal role in boosting the confidence of these students in pursuing careers in construction. By offering a nuanced perspective into the diverse paths within CM professions, the stories empowered these potential female professionals, enabling them to envision and strive for success in an industry traditionally dominated by males. Offering a tangible and relatable portrayal of women's experiences in the industry, this study provided an easily accessible resource for individuals, organizations, and educational institutions interested in promoting gender diversity in construction.
Abstract. On November 30, 2022, OpenAI released ChatGPT. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review of the current state of its application in construction writing and the regulations of academic institutions. It explores ChatGPT’s potential uses and risks as an educational tool to improve construction management writing skills, emphasizing the need for clear usage guidelines to maintain originality and critical thinking in students' work. The study also includes a survey of 110 students from the Department of Construction Management at East Carolina University participating in two writing-intensive courses, to assess their use, attitudes toward ChatGPT and its influence on their writing proficiency. The results suggest that ChatGPT is likely to positively impact students' writing skills, boost their self-confidence, and enhance the overall learning experience if clear guidelines are regulated and implemented.
Abstract. In the realm of construction education, the increasing utilization of Augmented Reality (AR) tools has brought forth new opportunities for enhancing spatial perception, optimizing spatial layout, accommodating design changes, and improving communication. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mobile AR apps in these dimensions, providing insights into the transformative potential of AR technology within construction instruction. A quantitative analysis was performed by comparing the time usage with and without Augmented Reality (AR) within both the experimental and control groups in each school. A supplementary questionnaire was also undertaken in this study from two construction programs with a focus on how AR tools influence spatial comprehension and communication. This study intends to contribute valuable perspectives for integrating these technologies into contemporary educational frameworks, thereby fostering a more comprehensive learning experience for students in the construction field.
Abstract. The stressors for the construction site managers include tight project deadlines, complex coordination, and workforce management, which impact their mental and physical well-being, resulting in loss of productivity. The productivity and well-being of the employees are greatly impacted by the physical conditions of the work environment. These include the layout of the workspace, lighting, temperature, noise, and ergonomics. Considering these factors, this research was initiated to measure the satisfaction level of on-site personnel with the design of their job site trailers in terms of physical and psychological comfort. It also focused on studying the benefits associated with incorporating biophilia in the design of job site trailers. Biophilic design helps to improve well-being and productivity by connecting occupants of a built space with the natural environment, like natural views, materials, water elements, sounds, indoor plantations, and even forms that mimic nature. A mixed-methods approach was used for data collection. The target population included construction project managers and site superintendents who had spent considerable time working in jobsite trailers. The qualitative data analysis highlighted the need for provision of efficient work spaces, natural light, nature views and noise control in trailers. Quantitative data collection showed that 73% of the respondents favored the idea of incorporating biophilic design in trailers.
Abstract. Focused on Massachusetts, this research investigates the cost impact of constructing residential homes at various energy efficiency levels and uses real quotes obtained from subcontractors working in the state. The study includes single-family homes and small multi-family homes (2-4 units) across different Home Energy Rating System (HERS) scenarios. These scenarios range from traditional homes (HERS 55) to more energy-efficient designs like all-electric homes with mini- split heat pumps (HERS 45), all-electric homes with central heat pumps (HERS 45), and dual-fuel homes with furnaces and ducted heat pumps (HERS 42). The findings reveal that enhancing energy efficiency increases costs, varying with housing type and targeted HERS score. Single-family homes see a cost rise between $3.77 and $8.12 per square foot (SF), while small multi-family homes face higher increases, from $7.75 to $23.78 per SF, mainly due to their smaller unit sizes. In Massachusetts, improving energy efficiency in single-family homes could add between 1.8% and 3.8% to overall costs, based on HERS scores. The incremental costs are primarily linked to insulation, air tightness, windows, HVAC systems, electrical work, and gas line. This study offers insights crucial for developing public policies to mitigate these additional costs and for making informed decisions about housing affordability.
Abstract. Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) is a worldwide concern considering its substantial impacts on environmental, economic and social sustainability. Yet, C&DW accounts for 40% of the globally generated waste and is expected to increase due to global urbanization and population growth and the upsurge of elderly buildings. This imposes a huge pressure on concerned bodies to eliminate or lessen the waste causative factors (WCFs). However, construction and demolition processes are recognized to be complex, multiparametric and dynamic making WCFs identification and management difficult in the absence of structured knowledge. This study aims to fill this gap using a systematic review to build a WCFs inclusive taxonomy. This study revealed that 93% of the existing knowledge is incomprehensive and aspect-oriented and disclosed 125 distinct WCFs that could be structured into 9 families: stakeholders attributes, legal and financial aspects, communication and coordination, design and pre- contract development, procurement and material supply chain, delivery and onsite logistics, onsite planning and management, waste-management-related measures and policies, and contingencies and external risks. This study would provide scholars, policymakers, and practitioners with the fundamental knowledge to develop effective solutions, strategies, and practices to lessen or eliminate C&DW generation and/or related impacts.
Abstract. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) has been the focus of several studies due to being globally accepted as a standard for the design, construction, and operation of highly efficient buildings. However, less research has focused on specific project types and the credit allocation of LEED systems in these projects. This research evaluates the associations between the scores achieved by multifamily residential projects in each category of LEED BD+C for New Construction version 4 (LEED-NC v4) and the overall LEED score of the projects to understand the consistency between the anticipated and actual weight of each category in determining overall sustainability of the projects. Data about the LEED-certified projects was gathered from the U.S. Green Building Council website and was analyzed through a multiple regression analysis. The results showed some consistencies and some discrepancies between the anticipated and actual weight of credit categories. For instance, Indoor Environmental Quality showed a higher influence on overall LEED score compared to Location and Transportation, despite having a lower weight in the system. These findings underscore the importance of periodically reviewing and revising the LEED criteria based on past projects and involving stakeholders in the development of the standards for this system.
Abstract. The transportation sector is crucial in the global economy's decarbonization efforts. In this context, green financing emerges as a crucial strategy for mobilizing financial resources to reduce carbon emissions and address climate change, yet it has received limited academic attention. This paper aims to bridge this gap by offering an overview of the academic development of green financing in transportation, employing a bibliometric analysis approach. Data for this study was sourced from the Scopus database, covering the period from 2007 to 2023. The quantitative analysis of relevant academic literature identifies key green financing mechanisms and their applicability in sustainable transportation. Our findings reveal that this field is gaining increasing academic attention, evidence by publications and citations, with significant contributions from China, the United States, and European countries. Through text mining, certain thematic areas were identified, including carbon pricing and offsetting, ESG, climate policy and change. This research contributes to literature by providing a detailed assessment of the academic interest, current status, and future directions in this domain. It is anticipated that these insights will guide researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, aiding them in capitalizing on emerging investment opportunities, envisioning green outcomes, and promoting more sustainable and equitable communities.
Abstract. Sustainability in the built environment is often judged by the presence and type of third-party sustainability assessment programs. Third-party rating systems offer independent and verifiable point- based metric systems to assess a building's adherence to a set of sustainable building principles. This study assesses mass timber structures' relationship to third-party rating systems in order to determine how sustainable mass timber structures are. A regression analysis of 370 completed commercial mass timber structures across the U.S. provides strong evidence that mass timber structures correlate with the presence of third-party rating systems, especially LEED. The data shows the presence of third- party certifications in over 36% of projects, a vast majority (64%) being LEED certified. Results highlight the overwhelming percentage of mass timber structures deciding to pursue sustainability certifications. Importantly, researchers gain additional building attribute knowledge relative to this new structural technology.
Abstract. This paper investigates the diverse applications of Large Language Models (LLMs) in the construction industry, emphasizing their transformative role in supporting human decision-making, enhancing efficiency, and improving accuracy in various tasks. The study explores LLMs' capabilities in key areas such as document analysis and quality control, data processing and information retrieval, content creation and management, and the development of interactive and customized systems. Through real-world examples, we illustrate how LLMs are driving innovation and progress in construction. These applications showcase LLMs' effectiveness in elevating operational efficiency, from nuanced document analysis to the advancement of interactive system development, fundamentally transforming the approach to construction management.
Abstract. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Laser Scanning (ULS) are both emerging technologies for rapidly capturing detailed 3D data of structures and environments. This study provides a comparative analysis between these two scanning techniques in terms of the accuracy and differences of the resulting 3D point clouds. A case study was conducted where TLS data was collected from ground-level scan positions while ULS data was captured through automated flights around the facility exterior. The point clouds from each platform were evaluated based on point density, geometric accuracy assessments, and ability to capture fine details. The TLS scans produced a highly accurate and detailed point cloud which was used as a benchmark in this study. The UAV scans exhibited less accuracy when compared to static TLS. However, the UAV was better able to capture hard-to-reach areas and provide a more complete model of the study site exterior. This research provides quantitative and qualitative comparisons between these scanning platforms to help determine the best approach based on requirements. The results will help professionals select the optimal scanning technology for generating the Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) depending on the application and accuracy requirements of the targeted DEMs.
Abstract. While previous research has been conducted on concrete production to improve sustainability while retaining durability and constructability, this research focuses on construction practices in slab-on- grade screeding and how project management decisions can impact eCO2 emissions. A comparative life-cycle assessment of manual and laser screed was performed in a traditional 100,000 SF slab with 6" thickness. The study aimed to determine the effects of a slab-on-grade's equivalent embodied carbon (eCO2) in commercial projects. Two embodied carbon calculators (EC3 and Green Badger) were used to examine the differences between the two methods. Industry professionals provided actual commercial project data to determine the impact of laser screed compared to manual screeding. This study found that laser screeding reduced schedule, workforce requirement, and concrete waste for the slab-on-grade installation. These results demonstrate an important reduction in embodied carbon due to reduced worker transportation and concrete manufacturing emissions. The findings also indicate that project managers can improve the environmental sustainability of their projects by using alternative techniques, such as laser screed equipment, compared to manual screeding.
Abstract. Offsite construction is beneficial for cost and schedule savings, creating a safer construction environment, and sustainability. Despite its historical use in the US since 1908, offsite construction has faced challenges in gaining a significant market share. Recently renewed interest has emerged, driven by increased housing demand and labor shortages. Leveraging prior research, this paper categorizes drivers from existing literature and investigates how modularization enhances these factors. A systematic literature review reveals that modularity can significantly benefits drivers of offsite construction grouped under different categories such as: cost and profitability, schedule, safety and quality, environmental sustainability, design and engineering and adoption of new technologies. The systematic literature review was followed by interviews with subject matter experts. The interviews highlighted the importance of modularity for efficiency and profitability, suggesting its potential to drive increased adoption in the industry.
Abstract. Virtual reality is a growing technology topic within the construction industry. Virtual reality cannot only provide entertainment, but it can be used for educational learning and training sessions. One key component of virtual reality incorporated into training sessions focuses on the simulation aspects where the environmental around a person imitates close-to real life conditions. Virtual reality simulations can take on many different forms such as a game, role-play, or even a training activity. Virtual reality through the development of construction equipment simulators has been used to help train construction equipment operators. Yet, the affordability of these simulators may not be within the budget of a company or educational institution. This paper discusses the basic components of a construction equipment simulator and provides insights into how a more economical affordable simulator may be built for the use of educational purposes.
Abstract. In recent years, the US population of lower socioeconomic status has had an increased experience of uncertainty in being able to acquire affordable housing, and this issue is only being augmented by the limited innovation in the US residential construction industry. Although there is limited innovation being introduced in the US residential construction sector of the US, 3D printing (3DP) or additive manufacturing, a broader term utilized by industry professionals, has been at the forefront of discussion among Architects, Engineers, Constructors, Owners, and Operators (AECOO) in recent years. Utilizing a literature review, this study identified the 52 obstacles/barriers the construction industry faces in implementing 3D printing in the residential sector. Of the 52 identified barriers impeding 3DP adoption, the top three obstacles were Cost, Training Cost, and Complexity. The research also identified that most identified barriers could be associated with the Relative Advantage of the innovation. One of the practical implications of the study’s findings is that there needs to be collaborative efforts between housing industry stakeholders, policymakers, and technology manufacturers to facilitate incentives and training programs to alleviate some of the obstacles/barriers identified in the research.
Abstract. The integration of Virtual Reality (VR) in higher education has revolutionized learning experiences, yet its application in quantity surveying remains underexplored. This study addresses this gap by evaluating VR's effectiveness against traditional teaching methods in a university-level quantity surveying program. Conducted with final-year students in the 2022-2023 academic year, it comprises two experiments. Initially, students assess 2D architectural plans, followed by immersion in VR to explore the same structures. The first experiment gathers qualitative data through interviews, while the second collects quantitative data via questionnaires. Results indicate that VR notably enhances student motivation, comprehension of structural elements, and spatial navigation in virtual models, particularly in measurement and construction technology areas of the curriculum. However, the study also reveals diverse comfort levels and challenges in VR navigation, suggesting the need for tailored VR integration strategies in different subject areas. This research fills a critical gap in understanding VR's impact in quantity surveying education, highlighting its potential to enrich learning outcomes across various disciplines within the built environment sector.
Abstract. Nepal's construction industry holds immense potential, demanding an urgent and active transition to automated technology to address challenges facing economic growth, urbanization, and escalating infrastructure needs. This paper explores the current state of construction automation in Nepal, emphasizing challenges, benefits, and the industry's knowledge levels. An IRB-approved Survey-based analysis was conducted with A-Class construction companies which reveals that while the sector incorporates automation, the primary emphasis remains on using construction equipment. Major hurdles identified include financial constraints and a shortage of skilled manpower. Recommendations include governmental support, curriculum enhancements in engineering programs, and intensified research initiatives to bridge knowledge gaps. The study urges an integrated education approach and calls for heightened awareness, policy advocacy, and curriculum reforms to drive innovation and sustainability in Nepal's construction sector. Positioned as a foundational exploration, The study aims to deepen comprehension and facilitate the real- world implementation of construction automation technologies in Nepal's evolving construction landscape. This includes practical applications such as optimizing project timelines, improving safety measures, and enhancing overall construction efficiency.
Abstract. The increasing adoption of visual dashboards in the construction industry holds potential for improved project management, elevated communication, transparency, and decision-making. This study explores the utilization of visual dashboards in construction projects, analyzing strengths, limitations, and improvement opportunities. Surveying construction professionals with over five years of experience, the analysis identifies key features of effective visual dashboards, including real-time data, interactivity, user-friendliness, and customizability. Challenges include real-time data integration intricacies. Participants advocate for user-centric designs, comprehensive data tracking, and regular updates. Further research could investigate dashboards' impact on project performance, address integration challenges, and explore ethical considerations.
Abstract. In the dynamic realm of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) projects, technological advancements have played a pivotal role in enhancing efficiency, accuracy, and safety on construction sites. Augmented Reality (AR) has emerged as a transformative tool, revolutionizing how construction projects are planned, executed, and monitored. This paper presents a comprehensive review of AR applications in construction management from 2018 to 2022, offering insights into the evolution, impact, and potential of this innovative technology. This study encompasses various AR applications, including design, fabrication, safety, education and training, and construction and facility management. The development of AR hardware and software solutions was explored. Notable developments and their implications have also been highlighted for the construction industry. Furthermore, the challenges and barriers hindering the widespread adoption of AR in construction management were analyzed, such as cost considerations, technological limitations, and workforce readiness. This comprehensive review serves as a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers seeking to navigate the transformative landscape of AR in construction management.
Abstract. Today, static, terrestrial, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instruments are becoming more affordable and ubiquitous in numerous professional areas, including civil engineering, construction, architecture, surveying, archeological sites, and manufacturing, to name a few. Individual applications often require a greater or lesser level of accuracy, and many can present tolerance constraints that may rule out some available methodologies. Since most applications require to stitch (register) multiple scans into a common coordinate system, it is critical to examine various existing popular registration approaches to form expectations of the accuracies they will yield. This work studies the relative accuracy of two final point-cloud models of the same spatial conditions. Each model uses a different scan-stitching approach, the Target-Based (TB) registration and the Visual- Aligned (VA) registration. For comparison purposes, both models are georeference into the same State-Plane coordinate system. Point positions and distances, extracted from both final LiDAR models, are compared against the same positions and distances acquired in the field by an accurate Robotic Total-Station (RTS) instrument. This article presents those discrepancies and concludes that the TB registration is, approximately, 3 to 4 times more accurate than the VA one, when modeling a 3.5-acre site, via a closed scanning loop, under the conditions described in this project.
Abstract. Painting in the construction industry is a hazardous activity that presents lots of construction risks for workers like falling from heights, musculoskeletal disorders from awkward positioning, and exposure to toxic substances, especially in confined spaces. Most construction projects include painting activities and the repetitive nature of painting activity has led to the proposal of several painting robots with very few being commercially available presently. These robots, however, in their present state have certain limitations affecting the ultimate productivity of the robots and their implementation at the construction job sites. The problem that this paper addresses is the lack of a study on the necessary elements of an autonomous painting robot (APR) to execute construction painting activities efficiently and safely. This presents a need to assess the current limitations of available painting robots to generate information that could serve as a basis for further research on ways to improve the efficiency of APRs. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the properties of an efficient APR and compare them with the properties of commercially available APRs. A comprehensive study was conducted on relevant literature from the Scopus database and Google Scholar library on the major parameters that define the performance of an APR. The study highlights the major properties for evaluating the performance of an APR as well as the present limitations of the available robots. The findings of this study are expected to provide further research areas for researchers interested in the improvement of the productivity of APRs.
Abstract. The preconstruction field has struggled to adopt model-based practices and often lags behind in implementing similar BIM-based workflows in the construction industry. Model-based estimating practices provide a mechanism to increase efficiency and improve the overall preconstruction process. However, even as rapid growth in technology continues, current barriers to adoption persist, and the industry is challenged to educate and train the workforce to use these technologies effectively. A simplified model-based estimating framework must be identified and standardized to solve these barriers to adoption. This paper proposes a framework supporting a software-agnostic, standardized BIM-based workflow for preconstruction called the Integrated Estimating workflow, which relies upon five categories: 1) Intentional Model Authoring, 2) Qualitative and Quantitative Data, 3) Integration of Cost, 4) An Estimating Standard, and 5) Application of Automation or Augmentation to either parts of or the whole process. The significance of this framework is to identify an uncomplicated, but standardized model-based estimating workflow, and to create an identifiable distinction between this workflow and others commonly referred to as model-based estimating workflows.
Abstract. Concrete is an indispensable material in contemporary construction, used for various elements such as foundations, columns, beams, and slabs. Construction and design phases are prone to errors and omissions, which can lead to a wide range of negative consequences, resulting in delays, increased costs, compromised structural stability, and safety hazards. A significant part of the construction industry's efforts is directed toward enhancing efficiency and mitigating such issues. This study aims to identify errors and omissions in concrete structures and assess technologies and techniques that have the potential to prevent these issues. This study uses a three-phased qualitative content analysis and found the top three categories associated with concrete errors and ommissions were: "Design-related, Formwork installation and execution, and Defective formwork and structural," which encompassed 70% of the identified problems. In addition, the research identified that the majority of the solutions identified could be identified as the theme of "Technological Tools."
Abstract. Construction schedules are critical for construction projects. Creating a construction schedule is complex. Because it requires a keen ability to understand construction documents and methods. Furthermore, a single construction project could be completed following multiple construction schedules. The preparation of construction schedules is currently done by humans. However, with the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI), it is possible to think of a future where humans could be assisted by an AI to develop construction schedules. An important step toward having an AI assisting humans in the creation of construction schedules is for the AI to understand construction schedules. Thus, this paper presents the comparison of two language modeling to evaluate an AI's ability to understand construction schedules. This comparison was done following a quantitative experimental research methodology where the independent variables were two AI language models (the Bidirectional Encoder Representation Transformers and the Masked and Permuted Pre-training for Language Understanding) and the dependent variables were accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 scores of the language modeling to understand construction schedule activities. The results demonstrate the impact of language models on the ability of the AI to understand construction schedules. The Masked and Permuted Pre-training for Language Understanding language model had an overall superior performance in understanding construction scheduling activities. This is important as supports the need to expand research projects as the one presented in his paper to identify the best language modeling and improve it for the construction industry.
Abstract. Commercial construction scheduling software (such as Primavera Project Planner and Microsoft Project) has been used by construction professionals for close to 40 years. Although those scheduling tools have been significantly modified over the years, the fundamental basis of the interaction between the construction professional and the scheduling software has remained unchanged where the construction professionals enter information and the software makes calculations and displays the schedule information in tables and graphs (such as CPM Diagram and Gantt Chart). However, in the same period, significant computational advances have been achieved leading to the recent explosion of Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities. The problem that serves as a point of departure for this research is that the current construction scheduling software workflow is unable to fully benefit from AI capabilities. Thus, the objective and original contribution of this paper is to describe the implementation of graph theory in Python to facilitate the realization of AI-generated construction schedules. The results presented in this paper are very encouraging as a piece in the puzzle of elements needed to create a new generation of construction scheduling software could benefit from AI capabilities and assist construction professionals in the creation of the construction schedule beyond simply making calculations and displaying information.
Abstract. Machine learning, as one of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches, has been widely adopted in various fields and is now becoming one of the emerging technologies revolutionizing the construction industry. One of the machine learning applications in the construction industry is to improve construction productivity. However, the current application in this field primarily focuses on enhancing productivity within specific, isolated construction tasks, often lacking real-world applicability. Therefore, a more holistic framework aimed at enhancing productivity across the entire construction process is desired by industry professionals. To enhance readiness for constructing such a framework, a methodical examination of existing literature has been carried out to explore the status of utilizing machine learning to enhance efficiency in construction practices. This review not only identifies but also categorizes the existing machine-learning applications and practices. Additionally, it highlights limitations and potential enhancements within current machine learning techniques, offering valuable insights for future research endeavors.
Abstract. Sustainable design and construction continue to gain traction, and more projects are incorporating water usage and efficiency practices into their designs. These practices are important in sustainable building and are prevalent in many projects. This study aimed to examine the Living Building Challenge (LBC) rating system and identify its standards for water efficiency, which are described by the water petal. The feasibility of incorporating water imperatives described in the water petal was investigated by conducting site visits to three projects in Colorado. Observational goals for each site visit were clearly defined as part of the data collection and helped analyze each project. The challenges and successes of each project are also identified and discussed. The results indicated that Colorado water law is one of the most significant challenges, along with the failure of design teams to coordinate with municipalities or utility companies early in the design process. However, progress has been made throughout the three projects, with reduced water usage and efficiency becoming more prevalent in later projects. Efficient water usage will continue to gain importance as the scarcity of water increases; therefore, it is essential to continue working towards incorporating responsible water practices in future projects.
Abstract. Construction materials account for a significant percentage of the resources on a construction site and plays a vital role in the success of the project. By utilizing an experimental methodology, the goal of this research was to execute a proof of concept for autonomous inventory management of construction materials using Ultra-High Frequency passive RFID and a terrestrial autonomous robot. An experiment was administered to identify the reliability (tags read vs. tags placed) of the proposed system in a dynamic environment in autonomous mode. According to the results, the robot was largely able to navigate around and between smaller objects versus larger obstacles. Using Bootstrap simulation, the successful read rate (percent) was found to be [67,88] [LL, UL] at a 95 percent confidence interval. Based on the results, using a Boston Dynamics SPOT with UHF Passive RFID to control building material inventories could be a viable route with additional research. Future research will improve material management through RFID, computer vision, and Bayes Filters for localization.
Abstract. Advancements in reality capture techniques have transformed the use of 3D datasets into a crucial resource for surveying and documentation in the Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) field. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely employed in this domain, offering high- quality mapping data. However, issues related to volumetric measurement accuracy in UAV-based 3D models have been observed. In contrast, UAV-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has emerged as a promising alternative, with superior coverage and accuracy. This study aims to conduct a comparative analysis of point clouds acquired from a camera-equipped UAV and a LiDAR-equipped UAV. The findings reveal that UAV-based photogrammetry demonstrates less relative accuracy compared to UAV-based LiDAR, thus providing valuable insights for professionals in the AEC industry. The results of the study may help small and medium-sized construction companies that have limited resources for LiDAR investment.
Abstract. Drones are increasingly being utilized in the construction industry, offering a wide range of applications. As these drones have to work with or alongside construction professionals, this integration could pose new safety risks and psychological impacts on construction professionals. Hence, it is important to understand their perceptions and attitudes towards drones and evaluate the cognitive demand of working with or near drones. Limited research has explored individuals' perceptions of drones, particularly when engaged in construction activities at job sites. This study specifically targets construction students, the future professionals in the field, to understand their responses to drone interactions on job sites. An immersive virtual reality construction site was developed using a VR game engine, allowing construction students to interact with drones while engaging in typical construction activities. Through a user-centered experiment, the influence of drone presence on construction students' attitude, cognitive workload, and perceived safety risk was evaluated. The results suggest that presence of drones did not significantly elevate cognitive load or foster significantly negative attitudes among construction students. Instead, they perceived only mild safety risks, suggesting a general acceptance and adaptability towards drone technology in construction settings.
Abstract. This study evaluates the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act's (IIJA) impact on Electric Vehicle (EV) opportunities for Electrical Contractors (ECs), highlighting the disparity between ECs' expectations and the actual opportunities available. Employing survey methodologies and analysis of IIJA project data, the research addresses ECs’ perceptual gap. The survey results, combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, particularly for open-ended questions, are juxtaposed with a quantitative analysis of IIJA data to extract financial insights. Key findings reveal a significant mismatch: while 75% of ECs view EVs as major future revenue sources, anticipating considerable opportunities from IIJA's EV projects, only 1% of IIJA funding is dedicated to EV-related initiatives. Despite 64% of ECs expecting substantial benefits from the IIJA for their businesses, only 7.5% of the total funding (approximately $15 billion) is allocated to sectors relevant to ECs, including broadband, clean energy, power, and EV infrastructure. The Clean Energy and Power sector, however, emerges as a potential area of opportunity, especially given that 92% of these projects are valued under $2 million, suggesting broader participation possibilities for ECs. The study's limitations include a small sample size of 54 survey participants and the evolving nature of IIJA projects. Future research will expand the participant base, explore regional differences, and continuously update IIJA project data to better understand the Act's long-term implications for ECs.
Abstract. This review paper presents a quantitative analysis of the literature on contract management of Building Information Modeling (BIM)-based projects spanning the past 15 years. The paper primarily focuses on statistical analysis of publications to identify previous research emphases and future research trends. This review includes 107 papers, selected through a systematic search and screening process, and employs a systematic review with a bibliometric analysis, using Microsoft Excel and VOSviewer for data analysis. The findings reveal a significant increase in the number of publications in the last five years, coinciding with an accelerated adoption of BIM in the construction industry. Analysis of annual distribution of published papers, the papers with the highest impact, and keywords indicates that legal contract issues are a barrier to BIM adoption. Additionally, the findings revealed the existence of connection between construction contract management and agile project management practices and the lack of research on the development of synergic BIM-contract models. Directions for future research, as the main contribution of this review, indicate the need to analyze the BIM impact on contracts management holistically, develop standards and models for BIM-based project contracts, and promote integration of BIM-contracts with agile project management practices.
Abstract. This study examines the conventional assumption that higher qualifications in A/E consultants or contractors correspond to higher bid costs in the procurement process in construction. By analyzing data from 327 projects across the United States and Canada, encompassing architectural/engineering design and construction projects, including both design-bid-build and alternative delivery methods, the research focused on bid costs and three key qualification-based evaluation criteria: technical proposals, past performance, and interviews. Contrary to common perceptions, the findings, assessed using Spearman's rank correlation and frequency analysis, revealed no significant correlation between higher qualifications and higher bid costs. This finding carries implications for project owners, contractors, and policymakers, suggesting a reconsideration of the emphasis on bid costs alone in the selection process. The study advocates a more detailed approach, considering qualifications alongside bid costs for enhanced project outcomes and collaboration in the construction industry.
Abstract. Evidence-based decision theory is a process to identify uncertainty and knowledge about a problem through research and practical knowledge. This research used the analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to analyze the risks associated with economics, environment, project, and technology on the project delivery methods of design-bid-build and design-build from the perspective of professionals in the construction industry. Data collected from this research was used to develop an evidence-based risk model related to the constructs of economics, environment, project, and technological risk and compare them between the two project delivery method variables of design- bid-build and design-build. Findings included significant differences across the constructs of project and technology. Additional findings on cost and time exposed differences associated with expectations of change and the understanding of costs within the design-build delivery method. For the design-bid-build project delivery method, the research confirmed the concern about cost growth through change orders. With design-build, the research supported the concept of improved quality and a better understanding of cost during the design process. Conclusions from this research provide construction managers associated with the ownership, design, and construction of projects with information about areas and magnitudes of potential risk concerning the two project delivery methods investigated.
Abstract. Force majeure clauses are contractual provisions that excuse parties from performing their obligations under certain circumstances beyond their control. The rising frequency of unforeseen events, such as pandemics, global supply chain disruptions, and natural disasters, has highlighted the importance of the force majeure clause. The overarching goal of this study is to identify the event types that can trigger force majeure clauses and changes in contract languages in state departments of transportation (DOTs) over a span of five years. This study conducts a comparative content analysis of state DOT construction contract documents, including requests for proposals and agreements. The findings indicate that many DOTs include force majeure clauses in their contract documents. The study identifies 26 event types that can trigger force majeure clauses grouped into 8 categories in the past five years. This study contributes to enhancing the state of practice on force majeure clauses in public construction contracts. Furthermore, the findings on changes in contract languages are anticipated to benefit practitioners, especially those in the transportation infrastructure industry in the U.S., by providing the significance and implications of the force majeure clauses.
Abstract. The COVID-19 pandemic spread worldwide and affected all countries globally. The strict lockdown sent global economies plunging as it suspended all economic activities. The continuous virus spread had significant impacts on most sectors of the economy, including construction. The construction industry faced challenges, such as labor shortages, material shortages, cost escalations, schedule delays, delayed permits, delayed approvals and inspections, travel restrictions, and serious health and safety concerns among others which hindered the timely delivery of the construction projects. As a result, owners were under immense pressure, especially public universities as there were limited buildings to accommodate the increased teaching and research activities to meet current and future needs. The aim of this research was to investigate how higher education owners mitigated construction building material delays and shortages to deliver construction projects within the timeframe needed to facilitate teaching and research activities. The study was divided into three phases: In the first phase, an extensive literature review and preliminary interviews with the owners and contractors were conducted to explore the strategies adopted to tackle the supply chain issues and their effectiveness. In the next phase, data was collected through a questionnaire survey that included open-ended and closed-ended questions. In the final phase, data was analyzed, and guidelines of best practices were created for owners to tackle issues in future similar crises.
Abstract. This article delves into the pervasive issue of scope creep in construction projects, drawing
insights from case studies and existing literature. It explores the challenges and conflicts arising
in three construction projects from Bahrain as a direct consequence of scope creep. It elucidates
how scope creep can lead to disputes among team members, resource overruns, missed
deadlines, and compromised quality. Through insightful anecdotes and analysis, it examines
each conflict scenario independently, discussing not only the negative outcomes but also
recommend on the potential strategies to mitigate scope creep’s impact. The recommendations
focus on clear communication and collaboration to prevent scope creep. Training programs for
project managers are identified as a critical need, specifically enhancing skills in scope
management and change procedures. Project governance rules and codes and contractual
immunity for project managers emerge as proactive measures to prevent issues in later project
stages. Three case studies further exemplify the practical implications of these
recommendations. The findings emphasize the universal applicability of these strategies in
diverse construction project scenarios, offering a comprehensive framework for mitigating
scope creep and ensuring successful project outcomes.
Abstract. Earned Value Analysis is an effective tool to manage project schedules and cost controls. However, it is not widely used because of the time resources required from construction managers. This research considered whether a central tendency exists in construction projects with same, or similar durations regarding cumulative earned value. An analysis was performed of a dataset containing 967 projects with durations primarily spanning 12 to 14 months. By examining the monthly billing percentages, average monthly billing percentages were calculated alongside their standard deviations, leading to the determination of minimum and maximum confidence intervals. An Earned Value Analysis (EVA) curve was then constructed based on these findings. The research found that a generalizable EVA curve can be established with relatively minimal variation from the mean. Key findings include an established average monthly billing percentage and a predictive EVA curve, which aids in identifying minimum and maximum confidence intervals for project billings. The study contributes to EVA knowledge by laying a foundation for predictive modeling in project billing, with implications for future research.
Abstract. Construction project cost saving can be achieved while sacrificing the performance, quality or safety levels without knowing. With the increasing demands of project owners, it is key to optimize cost, performance and quality to obtain the needed value. Value engineering (VE) is a potential tool for achieving value in projects. The Southwest Florida region in the United States of America (USA) experienced an influx of people with increased number of construction projects, but it was not apparent whether the needed value was being obtained by the project owners. Therefore, research was conducted focusing on VE implementation in various construction projects with the specific aim of investigating the existence of VE, amount of its use, certifications and outcomes. Online survey questionnaire was administered to construction practitioners in the region to get their feedback about VE. Results showed that VE was used by experienced contractors who were mainly involved in various projects where they benefited from using VE. However, the knowledge of VE was not at the required level with limited VE certifications to warrant demonstrated qualifications to provide value in projects. It was recommended that more VE training was needed to streamline efforts for certification and value addition in the construction industry.
Abstract. Value engineering (VE) is a systematic methodology used by a multidisciplinary team of professionals to provide value to the owner of a project, product, or service. This value can manifest in reduced cost, improved performance and quality of systems or overall project saving. The success of a VE methodology depends on the team conducting good function analysis, using correct creativity approaches, and employing better evaluation tools. Noteworthy is that the use of conventional VE methodology has shown various limitations where project owners may end up not getting the needed value. Thus, this research assessed the evaluation phase of VE and then proposed and demonstrated a new evaluation technique in VE called Choosing by Advantages (CBA) on a small case study project. The CBA concept was presented to the VE practitioners and then a survey questionnaire was administered to them to get their feedback about the concept relative to improving construction project outcome. The results showed a user-friendly and accepted CBA tool which could be used in VE methodology by construction project teams to provide the needed project value. This research contributes to the VE studies body of knowledge especially those focusing on improving construction project value and overall outcome.
Abstract. The construction industry has made significant improvements in adopting and integrating emerging technologies. One example is the wide use of Building Information Modeling (BIM), which offers numerous benefits to the construction industry. BIM assists project teams in achieving better quality with lower risk, shorter timeframes, and reduced costs. Meanwhile, the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) defines the required discipline to meet stakeholders' needs. PMBOK aims to facilitate the achievement of predefined project deliverables and improve project goals through effective communication and decision-making processes. This paper presents a questionnaire-based investigation to measure whether BIM implementation enhances the PMBOK in projects and whether BIM positively affects Project Management Knowledge Areas (PMKAs) on a global scale. The questionnaire consisted of 7 general questions, 37 PMBOK-oriented questions, and 4 questions targeting BIM advantages and obstacles. 95 experts participated in the survey based on the LinkedIn search and survey invitation. The results showed that BIM dramatically influences the quality of execution of PMKAs, specifically in Project Integration Management. Additionally, the study examined the effect of BIM on the product lifecycle that BIM improves project coordination and discovers clashes during the engineering phase. In the construction phase, BIM facilitates as-built drawings and enhances communication, and during the post-construction phase, BIM enhances facility and components’ lifecycle management. The research also found that the most significant obstacles to implementing BIM are the lack of experts, value propositions, and efficient training.
Abstract. This research was conducted to analyze the impacts of the growing technology and implementation of Construction Digitalization with the 4th revolution in the construction industry and how it has affected labor productivity. Industry 4.0 is a formation of technologies that digitize, mechanize, and merge the construction process at different stages. With the growing trends of digitalization, there have been various predictions as to how this will positively or negatively affect the workforce for both skilled and unskilled labor. The negative effects have mainly been predicted to impact unskilled workers while slightly affecting skilled workers significantly. This research is aimed at determining the impacts of the adoption of digitalization on labor productivity. This study used an online survey method hosted by Qualtrics and was emailed to industry professionals and students in April 2023. The study also utilized literature reviews of articles related to the topic from 2010 until 2023 to analyze trends in the adoption of digitalization on labor productivity accurately. While the majority of respondents agreed that Construction 4.0 would be a great addition to the industry, the survey found that some companies still have not adopted the concept and did not have a plan for it. The literature review did not raise any major concern about the cost and suggested that any cost incurred would be offset in the long run. In conclusion, while this is a great concept, more research will need to be conducted before the concept is universally agreed upon.
Abstract. Construction is a complex industry reliant on a network of stakeholders. Trust, the cornerstone of successful collaboration, plays a crucial role in this ecosystem. This paper explores the significance of trust in improving project outcomes and the overall well-being of the industry. This exploration includes trust's impact on team dynamics, the criteria for establishing trust, and the need for more research on trust in the United States. The absence of trust acts as a substantial collaboration barrier, resulting in adversarial relationships, contractual disputes, and a lack of efficiency among the workforce. Trust fosters open communication, enhanced safety, better quality, predictable schedules, innovation, employee retention, and client satisfaction. Trust encourages addressing root causes, prioritizing people, and promoting a culture of care. This paper recommends areas for future research, including trust measurement, maintaining trust over the project lifecycle, creating psychological safety, and studying the long-term effects of trust.
Abstract. This study explored the relationship between communication skills and career advancement for construction managers. The synthesis of grounded practices to communication theory was inclusive of a literature review, and related studies combined with observations and interviews in the field were used to develop a career trajectory model. This model is presented with quantitative and qualitative measures to validate the theory provided. Results from field observations, interviews, and validation measures are discussed and summarized. The study concludes that construction managers may accelerate their careers through conscientious efforts to develop their personal communication skills.
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to review the effectiveness of Reduced Working Hours Strategies (RWHS) such as The Four Day Week and explore Irish construction industry perception of how implementing such strategies might impact employee health, safety, well-being, recruitment, retention, and productivity. A mixed-methods research approach was used to uncover any perceptions of benefits, drawbacks and feasibility of RWHSs. The employer’s perspective was based on semi-structured interview data from market leading international construction companies. This was triangulated with survey data from the employee’s perspective to generate richer insights
Results suggested RWHSs could significantly improve working and personal lives of on-site employees. Employees were working on average above 50 hours per week and are aware of the potential benefits of RWHSs particularly with regard to health, accidents, retention and work- life balance. The research indicates that from employer perspective, the study concluded that management personnel were wary of widespread implementation of RWHSs but regarded their implementation feasible in specific aspects of the construction process such as pre-fabrication. Furthermore, they felt increased use of BIM and innovative procurement might facilitate such strategies. Exploring the use of RWHSs was generally perceived as necessary and potentially beneficial, particularly given the industry’s recruitment, retention and productivity issues.
Abstract. The increasing demand and rising price of wood-based materials have led to a need for alternative raw materials in particleboard production. Agricultural waste, such as waste wood and recycled wood waste, as well as food waste, can serve as ideal alternatives to traditional wood chips, which account for more than half of the production cost. Utilizing agricultural waste, food waste, and industry materials is not only cost-effective but also a key principle of the circular economy, leading to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Nevertheless, there is a lack of an updated, comprehensive assessment of the exploitation of these materials in particleboard production. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art particleboard production using environmentally friendly agricultural and food waste materials and recycled wood waste. The review categorizes particleboards into three groups: particleboards made with agricultural waste, food industry waste, and wood-based waste. The purpose is to compare the mechanical and physical properties of the resulting particleboards and establish their use in building construction according to various particleboard standards. This study demonstrates that wood-based, agricultural, and food waste can be transformed into high-quality, eco-friendly particleboards that surpass industry standards and are suitable for various applications such as construction, furniture, and laboratory equipment. The integration of these waste materials into mainstream production highlights the role of innovative recycling techniques in promoting sustainable urban development and construction practices. This approach significantly contributes to reducing deforestation, preserving natural habitats, and providing affordable housing, supporting a more sustainable and responsible approach to resource management. This review is undertaken to address the critical need for sustainable alternatives in particleboard production amidst environmental and economic challenges. It aims to consolidate recent advancements in using waste materials, providing a comprehensive assessment essential for future research and industry application. This effort aligns with global environmental objectives and advances the circular economy.
Abstract. This study focuses on the critical examination of wage disparities within the expansive landscape of the United States’ construction labor market. While wage differentials are not surprising considering different conditions of job requirements, comprehending and delineating these disparities on a national scale presents considerable challenges. To address this issue, this study employs web scraping techniques to collect data from construction job openings across the country. This study then applies natural language processing techniques to extract information related to wages, job types, work experience requirements, and geographical locations of the job postings. This approach involves web scraping, text mining, ANOVA analyses, and spatial visualization techniques to detect and represent wage disparities within the construction labor market. This research not only contributes to creating a structured repository of wage disparity data but also provides a visual understanding of the intricate landscape of wage differentials, revealing interactions between various key variables. This research will serve as a valuable resource not only to researchers but also to policymakers and employers, contributing to a deeper understanding of wage disparities within the construction labor domain.
Abstract. Wildfires in recent years have posed a great threat to residential properties and local economies in communities located near the wildland-urban interface (WUI), particularly in the state of California. Wildfires destroy residential properties, disrupting the residential construction supply chains. When the residential housing stock is destroyed by wildfires, rebuilding must quickly begin to avoid disrupting the local community and economy. This process intensifies the demand for residential construction material resources and requires the local construction labor market to sustain the demand for construction labor over time and manage the influx of workers. Using an interrupted time series analysis, this study investigates the dynamic impacts of wildfires on the residential construction sector, utilizing residential permits and labor employment data from a case study of the 2018 Camp Fire in Butte County, California. Results indicate that the wildfire promoted a sustained increase in residential construction activity (average post-fire permit valuations increased by 67%), matched by a consistent rise in labor employment (average post-fire labor concentration increased by 25%). The findings provide insights into the resilience of residential construction sectors in the face of wildfires.
Abstract. One future challenge that the construction industry will begin to face soon is the transition of a new generation of workers into the field. Older generations, who hold a tremendous amount of knowledge and experience in the field, are retiring as the newer generation, "Generation Z" are beginning their careers. This new generation of talent entering the workforce poses new challenges and opportunities for growth, as they are the largest and most diverse generation yet. This paper illustrates the challenges and opportunities this new generation and the construction industry will face, and creating new ways to attract, retain, and educate gen-z as they enter the workforce through student feedback.
Abstract. The facility workforce has recognized an increase in the number of facility management professionals. However, the ability to identify, develop, and retain these individuals is an essential task to the success of the facility management sector broadly across many organizations. As a result, the purpose of this research is to shed light on the usage of human traits profiles for facility professionals using procurement professionals as a benchmark of comparison to assist in recruiting and retaining experts in the facility workforce. The study used HEXACO personality inventory, Emotional Intelligence, and Q-Disc behavioral diagnostics to identify the differences between 49 facility managers and 319 procurement professionals. The collected data was analyzed using a t-test to estimate quantitatively. This analysis identified significant differences between the two fields. As one of the few studies for human traits profiles in facility management, this paper will help enhance talent retention and solidify the facility management industry's foundations on a global scale.
Abstract. Increased collaboration has proven to be a benefit to project performance but much of the research has been limited to contractual aspects or focused on managerial teams. The paper presents a case study of an industrial project where collaborative practices were implemented both contractually and also behaviorally facilitated across all levels of the project organizational chart, included company executives, project managers, site leaders, crew leaders, and craft workers. The facilitated collaboration approach demonstrated a 20% increase in productivity and over 10% in cost avoidance compared to the project owner’s traditional approach. This paper explores both quantitative and qualitative outcomes of the approach, offering an assessment of its impact on project performance metrics.
Abstract. Research has begun to study ways for the construction industry to win the war on the global labor shortage, it has become more of a challenge to attract and retain talented employees. The labor shortage makes it difficult to match positions with candidates in the first place, but keeping the talent you already have is an equally pressing matter. Together, these factors paint a challenging picture of the road ahead for the industry. To attract and retain talent, some construction companies are transforming themselves into a place where people want to work and stick around. Employee ownership is one business strategy companies have found to help attract and retain long term employment. The initial idea was designed to increase wealth after retirement and develop a culture that allows employees the opportunity to be active and engage in company strategies. The focus of this paper will show how successful Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) impact employee retention, productivity, and engagement in becoming the employers of choice. The research shows how a positive employee attitude towards ownership will lead into a long career in construction, all the way to retirement.
Abstract. Calcined clay is increasingly used in construction applications due to its pozzolanic effect. This research paper investigates the potential use of calcined recycled dredged sediments as an eco- friendly supplementary cementitious material in partial replacement of ordinary portland cement (OPC). The main objective of this research is to reduce cement consumption in concrete production process to minimize the carbon footprint of produced concrete and increase the overall project sustainability. Five concrete mixes were designed including one control mix (with zero calcined clay sediment replacement) and four mixes with stepwise replacement of OPC using calcined clay sediment at ratios ranging from 10% to 40% (by weight). Produced mixes are prepared using consistent batching, mixing, pouring, compaction, and curing procedures to quantify the impact of calcined clay variation on concrete properties. The compressive strength test results of concrete mixes showed that calcined clay can successfully replace OPC up to 30% (by weight) without reducing concrete compressive strength. The successful incorporation of calcined clay sediment in concrete industry will significantly reduce the negative impact of concrete construction projects on the surrounding environment and participate in the increased LEED rating of concrete buildings.
Abstract. The National Bridge Inventory (NBI) of the United States includes more than 600,000 bridges. A significant number of current bridges is structurally deficient and/or functionally obsolete. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) as well as State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are investigating possible alternatives to improve the NBI bridges rating. Flooding and excessive rain are among the causes of bridges deterioration. Bridge deck runoff has been a prime source of pollution. In addition, reduced deck drainage efficiency due to poor design, mal construction practices, and lack of maintenance results in runoff accumulation on bridge decks. Increased accumulation of runoff results in traffic congestions, potential bridge deterioration due to increased corrosion, and a substantial impact on bridge aesthetics. Excessive runoff accumulation may result in hydroplaning and higher accidents rates. This paper presents the significance of properly designed, constructed, and maintained deck drainage systems. A nation-wide survey outcomes of State DOTs regarding best design, construction, and maintenance practices of deck drains is presented, and the relevant outcomes of their impact on bridge condition is highlighted. The implementation of bridge deck drainage best practices in bridge design projects will result in improved bridge functionality, increased bridges load rating, reduced maintenance, and improved aesthetics.
Abstract. Three-dimensional printing (3DP), or additive manufacturing AM, creates a three-dimensional item from a digital 3D model. Although it is still in its preliminary stages of acceptance in the construction industry, this automated manufacturing method has gained substantial importance across industries, including the construction industry. 3D printing technology can improve building efficiency for irregular structures by introducing construction automation. This research aims to review the impact of gypsum on the mixture of cementitious material's printability, compressive strength, compressive strength, hydration, and rheological behavior. This study analyses the relationship between construction materials, like cement mortar and other cementitious materials, and their interesting environmental behaviors with gypsum powder for 3D printing in construction. In addition to reviewing various techniques that are used in the construction industry.
Abstract. The dynamic modulus (|E*|) of asphalt mixtures is one of the main material characteristics that governs the quality of asphalt pavements in their design and construction. While the |E*| values are traditionally obtained from intensive laboratory testing or statistical predictive equations, this research attempted to apply several machine learning (ML) techniques to predict |E*|, especially for non- conventional asphalt mixtures. The study used 3906 lab-measured |E*| data points from different types of non-standard asphalt mixtures, such as recycled asphalt pavement, recycled asphalt shingles, warm mix asphalt, asphalt rubber, air-blown asphalt, and polymer-modified asphalt. Mixture temperature, loading frequency, aggregate gradation, mixture volumetric, and asphalt binder information were included as variables used in the ML techniques. Relative comparisons were made to answer the following question: which ML technique would provide a more accurate prediction for |E*| when non-conventional asphalt mixtures are considered in the design and construction? It was found that, among the five ML techniques used in the study, decision trees and random forests showed the best prediction capability. Linear regression showed the least accurate prediction. It was also found that the |E*| measured for asphalt-rubber asphalt mixtures was best predicted by ML techniques.
Abstract. This study investigates the influence of thermal conductivity of paving concrete on the performance of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP). The thermal properties of concrete play a crucial role in determining the response of pavements to temperature variations, affecting their durability and structural integrity. Through a comprehensive analysis, this research aims to elucidate the direct relationship between thermal conductivity of paving concrete and JPCP performance. The experimental approach involves varying levels of thermal conductivity in concrete mixtures to observe corresponding changes in pavement behavior. Thermal conductivity alterations are achieved by modifying material composition and incorporating additives. The study evaluates how these changes impact critical factors such as temperature-induced stresses, crack propagation, and overall pavement distress. Results from this investigation contribute valuable insights for optimizing JPCP design and materials selection, with a focus on enhancing pavement performance. By understanding the nuanced effects of thermal conductivity, engineers and practitioners can make informed decisions to improve the resilience and longevity of concrete pavements, especially in regions prone to temperature extremes. The pavement designers should incorporate laboratory tested thermal conductivity data for JPCP design otherwise the use of default data will result in under designed pavement that might fail prematurely. This research has implications for sustainable infrastructure development, offering a foundation for more robust and climate-responsive pavement design practices.
Abstract. The objectives of this research are to identify socioeconomic variables which are associated with financial loss per capita caused by hurricanes and to examine the strength of the relationships between the significant variables and the financial loss per capita. Since hurricane occurrences are unavoidable, researchers’ interest has focused on reducing damages generated by hurricanes. To mitigate potential losses, it is important to understand which socioeconomic factors are significantly associated with the disaster loss. This research proposes a method to identify which socioeconomic variables impact the financial loss per capita caused by hurricanes and how the effects of those variables vary. An ordinary least squares regression is performed to identify variables that significantly impact financial losses. This research uses insurance claim payouts generated by Hurricane Harvey in 62 Texas counties to measure the direct financial loss per capita. Analyses results suggest that communities with the following features are relatively more vulnerable to hurricanes: located where severe storms pass through, higher rainfall amounts, lower rates of homeownership, higher percentage of mobile homes, lower employment rates, and higher female population. Findings from this research will offers insights on identifying areas susceptible to hurricane-related damages and mitigate potential disaster losses.
Abstract. Falls remain the leading killer in the U.S. construction industry. Despite the recurring nature of fall- related fatalities, the construction industry seems to struggle with learning from past incidents. Between 2015 and 2019, over 37% of all construction fatalities (1,902 out of 5,172) were fall-related. This research study aims to analyze Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigations of fall-related fatalities in the construction industry during this 5-year period to identify trends and patterns of these fatal occurrences. More than 40% of the fatality investigations conducted by OSHA between 2015 and 2019 involved falls. Of these falls, roofing contractors accounted for over 25% of all fall fatalities, many of which were in the falls from roofs category. This study identified 20 types of work activities that preceded the construction fall fatalities investigated by OSHA. Industry professionals and academia can leverage the "lessons learned" from this paper to develop training programs that reduce the likelihood and severity of falls from height on construction sites.
Abstract. The severe destruction brought on by building fires is sometimes ascribed to several issues, including incomplete information and delayed decision-making, both of which can cause a situation to quickly escalate and make it more difficult to minimize the damage. Emergency evacuation exercises are essential for lessening the impacts of fires, but it's vital to remember that every building fire has a different set of challenges depending on the location, origin, and consequences of the fire. Because of this, utilizing specialized fire safety strategies and training programs may considerably boost the probability of effective mitigation and reduce the repercussions of these unforeseeable catastrophes. This essay offers a thorough analysis of cutting-edge innovations and less hazardous techniques that may be used to successfully reduce building fires. The intent is to contribute to the exploration and creation of more effective and sustainable fire safety measures and limiting the environmental impact by investigating and evaluating these cutting-edge approaches. The article will also go through conventional fire training techniques and give a thorough comparison with virtual reality (VR) fire emergency training methods, looking at the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy in terms of efficiency, expense, and accessibility.
Abstract. The construction industry is widely acknowledged as hazardous and stressful, necessitating proactive measures to mitigate accidents and fatalities. This study investigated the influence of the Big Five personality traits on construction workers' recognition of the Fatal Four near-miss scenarios under different stressor conditions. Using an eye-tracking experiment conducted in a controlled environment, 35 participants were exposed to well-balanced stimuli images derived from actual construction sites. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires to assess their personality traits, and their recognition performance was recorded and analyzed using a wearable eye tracker. The findings revealed a statistically significant difference in visual attention for participants in non- stress versus stressful conditions. Individuals with low (neuroticism and openness) and high (agreeableness and conscientiousness) displayed enhanced alertness during the stressor condition. Therefore, this study provides empirical evidence of the impact assessment between stressor conditions and personality traits on near-miss recognition in the construction industry. The results open avenues for developing personalized safety training programs tailored to individuals with lower near-miss identification abilities under stress, thereby fostering a robust safety culture within the construction sector.
Abstract. The construction industry faces significant challenges in ensuring worker safety, health, and productivity. To address these challenges, recent research has focused on innovative approaches, including the adoption of Robotics and Automation (RA) technologies such as wearable robots, remotely operated robots, and on-site automated systems. These technologies offer potential solutions to enhance safety and productivity. However, their integration into construction lags behind other industries, partly due to the absence of standardized guidelines and concerns surrounding human-robot interaction (HRI) safety risks. This study introduces an electronic tool (e- tool) specifically designed for safety risk evaluation in RA applications within construction. Developed through a mixed-methods approach, including a literature review and a modified Delphi process, this tool aims to identify and mitigate HRI safety risks. It encompasses various mitigation strategies and aids in pre-task planning. The tool, named "Assessment of Human-Robot Interaction Safety Risks in Construction Operations," has been tested by industry stakeholders, demonstrating its effectiveness, clarity, and practicality. This significant development not only advances worker safety in RA but also contributes to improving overall work environments and productivity in the construction sector through the strategic integration of robotic technologies.
Abstract. There is a growing interest in utilizing active back-support exoskeletons to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders in various industries, including construction. However, the unique characteristics of construction sites may impede the biomechanical advantages of active back- support exoskeletons by increasing users' cognitive load. This research focuses on assessing the impact of active back-support exoskeletons on cognitive load during a construction framing task. An experimental study, involving sixteen participants performing a simulated carpentry framing task with and without active back-support exoskeletons across six subtasks, was conducted. Participants’ brain activities were captured using Electroencephalography for the two experimental conditions. The differences between the conditions were analyzed using paired t-tests. The findings indicate that the use of active back-support exoskeletons significantly heightens cognitive load during measuring, assembly, nailing, and installing subtasks. These results emphasize the importance of developing adaptive active back-support exoskeletons tailored to the construction industry's specific needs, considering the distinct challenges of construction environments. Additionally, this study contributes to construction stakeholders' understanding of the psychological risks associated with active back-support exoskeletons use on construction sites.
Abstract. Active back-support exoskeleton has gained recognition as a potential solution to mitigate work- related musculoskeletal disorders. However, their utilization in the construction industry can introduce unintended consequences, such as increased fall hazards. This study examines the implications of using active back-support exoskeleton on fall risk during construction framing tasks, incorporating wearable pressure insoles for data collection. Two experimental conditions were established, one involving the simulation of construction framing tasks with exoskeleton and the other without exoskeleton. These tasks encompassed six subtasks: measuring, assembly, nailing, lifting, moving, and installation. Foot plantar pressure distribution was recorded across various spatial foot regions, including the arch, toe, metatarsal, and heel. Statistical analysis, employing a paired t-test on peak plantar pressure data, revealed that the use of active back-support exoskeleton significantly increased fall risks in at least one of the foot regions for all subtasks, except for the assembly subtask. These findings provide valuable insights for construction stakeholders when making decisions regarding the adoption of active back-support exoskeleton in the industry. Moreover, they inform exoskeleton manufacturers of the need to develop adaptive and customized exoskeleton solutions tailored to the unique demands of construction sites.
Abstract. Construction site hazards and safety concerns have been a longstanding issue within the industry. These concerns extend beyond immediate physical risks to workers and public safety. Ensuring safety in construction is pivotal, as it not only safeguards lives but also has a significant societal impact. Previous studies have explored various methods and strategies to enhance construction site safety. However, there remains a gap in understanding the intricate interplay between contributing factors, personal attributes, and accident occurrence. This research aims to fill this gap by employing advanced data analysis techniques, including text mining, time series, comparative, correlation analyses. In this regard, we present a novel approach to address construction site safety. We begin by manually collecting data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) accident reports and subsequently employ an automatic algorithm for data cleaning and extraction. The data we collect includes information on Gender, Age, Contributing factors, Cause of Death, Recommendations by experts, State, and Summary from these reports. Through these advanced data analysis techniques, we aim to identify the most effective strategies for reducing the occurrence of accidents in the construction industry, thereby improving overall safety performance.
Abstract. There is an escalating threat of heat stress exposure by all and those at a disproportionate risk are construction workers. Beyond this, roofers as a subset of those workers are second when it comes to the risk of heat-related deaths, but there are not many studies that specifically focus on the need to protect roofers. That is why it is imperative to further investigate the impact environmental heat has on roofers and this study begins to forward this work by understanding the physiological response of roofers to heat stress to advocate for more research in this area of work. To determine the conditions and physiological response to working in hot environments by roofers, the research team used two wearable devices to obtain environmental heat and core body temperature measures. What is found is that participants experienced significantly high heat index values while working. This is reflected in the measure of workers’ core body temperature readings that in some cases have shown core body temperatures significantly exceeding normal core body temperatures.
Abstract. Fall hazards persist as a critical concern in the construction industry, constituting a leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal accidents. Over the years, scholars and industry professionals have come up with numerous safety training strategies to overcome this challenge. However, these safety training programs often fail to educate the trainees adequately due to their traditional and ineffective nature. Recently, YouTube has been adopted widely as a platform to disseminate educational information and resources. However, the quality and reliability of the YouTube videos remain questionable. This study focuses on assessing the quality and reliability of fall safety training videos available on YouTube. To achieve the objective, this study adopted one of the widely adopted tools, DISCERN. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of assessed videos are of good quality and can be relied on as it comes to fall safety training. This research is one of the first attempts in highlighting the potential of DISCERN as a robust tool for assessing and filtering YouTube videos. The results affirm the feasibility of leveraging YouTube as a viable platform for utilizing reliable fall safety training content, thus contributing to the enhancement of safety practices within the construction industry.
Abstract. Work zones are unique construction sites having multiple elements and complex scenarios. Existing studies have utilized crash data to explore the key factors contributing to work zone crashes. However, studies covering various elements comprehensively are missing, especially in Indiana. Also, there is a lack of studies exploring how to identify the representative scenarios from a large number of work zone crashes. Thus, this study aims to investigate the key factors contributing to work zone crashes covering multiple elements and propose a procedure to select representative scenarios based on crash data. Three Indiana crash data resources and the Natural Language Processing method were applied. There are several key findings. The key factors from multiple resources were summarized, including road conditions, work zone elements, and environment. Traffic activities were the top factors, followed by construction vehicles and weather conditions. Then, a seven-step procedure to extract the representative scenarios from crash records was proposed. Applying the procedure, two representative cases were identified from Indiana crash data. The study enhances the comprehensive understanding of work zone crashes based on large- scale data and helps improve safety for workers, drivers, and pedestrians.
Abstract. The complex process of Construction Project Management (CPM) is overwhelming because it
involves many participants and multiple disciplines requiring vast information processing. In this
context, Construction Project Managers benefit from all tools or models available to improve this
process. Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology is one of the models gaining awareness
in the construction industry. Its collaborative essence is one of the most appreciated benefits
because it facilitates communication and collaboration between the project stakeholders. This study
investigated how BIM technology enhances the CPM process to achieve project objectives more
efficiently. The research began with a review of existing literature to identify the main
characteristics of BIM technology, as well as the key factors that determine an efficient and
effective CPM process. The researcher selected a quantitative survey methodology. An electronic
questionnaire gathered data about CPM professionals’ knowledge and experience regarding using
BIM technology on projects. The analysis results indicated a positive relationship between BIM
and CPM process. The research findings suggested that construction companies and professionals
should consider adopting or expanding the use of BIM technology.
Abstract. This research investigates the influence of Building Information Modeling (BIM) on the design of fire sprinkler systems, particularly in alignment with NFPA 13 requirements. Globally, fires result in significant human and property losses, emphasizing the need for effective fire prevention measures. Fire sprinkler systems, governed by stringent NFPA regulations, play a pivotal role in mitigating these losses. With the advent of BIM in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, questions arise regarding its efficacy in aiding the design and installation of these systems. Through a questionnaire survey targeting professionals in the field, this study seeks to understand the current capabilities and limitations of BIM in this context. Preliminary findings indicate a strong endorsement of BIM's role in 3D modeling and conflict detection. However, challenges persist in areas like sprinkler type selection and compliance with specific NFPA 13 rules. The research underscores the need for further advancements in BIM to better support fire sprinkler system design, ultimately aiming to enhance fire prevention and safety.