ASC2022:Papers with Abstracts

Abstract. The exploratory research assessed the Covid-19 impacts on Construction Industry 4.0 implementation during the first year of pandemic restrictions. The research used a case study approach with industry professionals as the unit of analysis geographically located in the southeast United States. Data was collected through a survey of industry professionals, capturing their views of individual and company competencies before and during the pandemic. The survey indicates the perceptions about the application of Industry 4.0 in construction have changed during Covid-19, from March of 2020 to March of 2021, and views on expected future utilization. The industry professionals were asked to describe their opinions of Industry 4.0 abilities and how they changed during the pandemic. That data was then assessed through qualitative and quantitative analysis and supported the research aim. BIM, Big Data, and Analytics were shown to be where most professionals felt company reliance increased during the pandemic. The analysis also indicates that most participants expect a future increase in their company’s support on Industry 4.0. The response to Covid-19 has changed the perceptions and implementation of these methods within construction.
Abstract. COVID-19 has significantly impacted the construction industry when it comes to the safety of workers. While the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has come up with some requirements for improving workplace safety for COVID, no study has been done on its effects on construction companies. The guide provided by OSHA talks about topics such as which workers are more at risk, how to stop the spread, and what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to use, but not about the overall effect it could have on workers. Also, as it is still quite a recent problem, there is not enough data for it. The purpose of the study is to assess the effects of COVID-19 on safety procedures in the construction industry. In this study, a questionnaire survey was used to collect important data about the safety-related issues faced by workers in the construction industry during COVID-19. The study mainly focused on the impacts of the virus on the safety of construction workers in the U.S. The collected data regarding the safety practices during COVID-19 provides some useful information that could be used to improve workers’ safety in construction while keeping the business running.
Abstract. Integrating drones into construction sites can introduce new risks to workers who already work in hazardous environments. Consequently, several recent studies have investigated the safety challenges and solutions associated with this technology integration in construction. However, there is a knowledge gap about effectively communicating such safety challenges to construction professionals and students who may work alongside drones on job sites. In this study, a 360-degree virtual reality (VR) environment was created as a training platform to communicate the safety challenges of worker-drone interactions on construction jobsites. This pilot study assesses the learning effectiveness and user experience of the developed 360 VR worker-drone safety training, which provides an immersive device-agnostic learning experience. The result indicates that such 360 VR learning material could significantly increase the safety knowledge of users while delivering an acceptable user experience in most of its assessment criteria. The outcomes of this study will serve as a valuable resource for improving future worker-drone safety training materials.
Abstract. Due to the dangerous nature of construction work, thousands of U.S. construction workers are injured and hundreds are killed on American worksites each year. In 2019, the U.S. construction industry accounted for one thousand and sixty-one (1,061) work-related fatalities, which amounts to a five percent (5%) increase from the previous year and the largest total number of annual worker deaths since 2007. This research study examined the Occupational Safety & Heath Administration (OSHA) construction fatality investigation findings during 2019 and organized these data points into four (4) major fatality-type categories and forty-nine (49) detailed types of events to identify potential trends for these fatal incidents.
Abstract. Historic houses of worship have traditionally been cornerstones for society and have the potential to become resilience hubs for the community in response to the increasing impacts of natural disasters. However, given that most historic houses of worship are decades or centuries old, the maintenance paradigm for such buildings is unknown and should be investigated before they can be considered resilience hubs. Therefore, the research investigated the building maintenance paradigm of historic houses of worship in coastal Texas counties impacted by Hurricane Harvey. The study also determined the role played by the historic houses of worship in response to a natural disaster. The study utilized an online survey method in which the instrument was shared with historic houses of worship stakeholders. Pre-established criteria were used as parameters to determine respondents. About 17 out of 40 historic houses of worship in 16 counties responded to the study. The study found considerable vulnerabilities in building maintenance protocols, maintenance budget, and the lack of professionals to maintain the historic houses of worship. Most respondents also indicated the need for standard guidelines to support historic houses of worship’s maintenance. The study also found that historic houses of worship volunteer in response to natural disasters.
Abstract. Heat-related illness (HRI) has become a particular concern in recent years. Many industry workers are affected by HRI due to prolonged exposure to heat and humidity. HRI is a well-known health threat that can lead to serious morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to recognize HRIs characteristics and risk factors by reviewing the HRI incident report between 1984 and 2020. Data cleaning and text mining methods were used to derive incident features and relevant risk factors. The results showed that trucks and roofs are the highest incidence locations and the main
symptoms of HRI are collapse, dehydration, dizziness, and vomit. In the 1,406 incident cases, 43.8% of HRIs were fatal. The findings revealed that 89.7% of HRI patients were male with an average age of 41.4. Besides, HRIs were highly influenced by season and time of day, with 77% of incidents in the summer months and 64.1% between 11 am and 5 pm. Furthermore, between 1984 and 2020, HRI demonstrated a considerable upward tendency. The findings will assist employers and safety professionals to take appropriate actions to eliminate or reduce the identified risk factors.
Abstract. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all industries, including the construction industry. In addition to being a hazard-prone environment, construction also has the highest number of occupational fatalities. Construction workers have been affected more severely by this disease than the general public. The availability of vaccines has fueled optimism, with vaccination considered the safest and most effective method of protecting against COVID-19. However, vaccinating the workforce to achieve herd immunity has been difficult as the acceptance rate appears to be a significant hurdle. The purpose of this study is to assess construction workers' acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine after it became widely available. A two-step research methodology was used in this research that included: 1) a comprehensive literature review looked at COVID-19 vaccination rates in the U.S. and construction workers' unwillingness to get vaccinated and 2) a qualitative questionnaire survey to assess worker acceptance. Results showed 43% of construction workers have not received the COVID-19 vaccine, while 41% refused the vaccine. To increase vaccination acceptance among construction workers, construction stakeholders should supply safety training and improve the safety culture within their organizations.
Abstract. The construction industry continues to be plagued by a high rate of injuries and fatalities. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration requires that employers provide training for their employees on a regular basis to improve safety. Researchers for this study used a pretest-posttest evaluation method to investigate the effectiveness of different forms of construction safety training. The topics include warning lines, preferred fall protection systems, and harness inspection using videos, texts, and slides as training modes. The findings suggest that the training topic affects the training outcome. A more complex training topic like the preferred fall training topic will result in greater change in participants’ posttest after the intervention while a simple topic like harness inspection will register minimal change in scores. The preliminary conclusion is that training was effective for all topics and all modes of instruction, but some are more effective.
Abstract. The main objective of this research is to study the impact of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) on mitigating Alkali-Silica Reactivity (ASR) of hardened concrete. ASR is a deleterious reaction between alkali content within the cement and highly reactive silica content available in some aggregate sources across the United States. ASR results in the formation of an expansive white-like gel that adds internal tensile stresses within hardened concrete. Increased tensile stress results in the formation of cracks, dissipation of additional moisture, and reinforcement corrosion. In this research project, large scale concrete blocks, with aggregates from different sources, were poured using different percentages of SCMs. An exposure site was developed for the poured blocks to investigate ASR possible impact on concrete. ASR impact was measured by calculating concrete blocks expansion over a time span of two years. The outcomes of the research showed that different aggregates result in different rates of expansion. The use of SCMs resulted in mitigating ASR and limit concrete expansion. The replacement of 25% to 30% of cement weight with SCMs (fly ash) is sufficient to halt ASR, and improve the long- time performance of concrete structures.
Abstract. Plastic has become an essential part of our life. Unfortunately, it has a negative environmental impact due to its limited recycling rate. This study investigates the effect of replacing 10% of sand with recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in concrete and the effect of particle size of PET used in the concrete mix. The impact of these two factors on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete was examined. Two types of PET particle sizes, 2.36 mm (sieve #8) and 4.75 mm (sieve #4), were investigated. Concrete was cast to determine the behavior of fresh and hardened concrete in terms of workability, unit weight, and compressive strength. The experimental results showed improvement in all three of these critical characteristics of concrete. Replacing 10% of the sand with 4.75 mm PET resulted in better properties than other mixes used in the trials. We think that using a specific size of PET particles rather than a randomly selected PET size combination is the reason behind this improvement. This study proved that utilizing plastic waste in specific ratios and specific particle sizes within concrete mixes can be effectively used in industrial applications. This is a pilot study to explore this specific topic.
Abstract. Under COVID-19 circumstances, the majority of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) contractors around the world found themselves handcuffed, facing the sudden restrictive measures to be mandatorily applied in worksites imposing a necessary shift in the typical practices for building. Building Information Modeling (BIM) technologies associated with fast-track construction were found to be an efficient solution for several countries to quickly build health care facilities to meet the rising number of COVID-19 cases. Based on a comparative study, this paper explores the applicability of BIM-based building operation for fast-track construction in the African context and discusses the associated challenges as well as needed elements for its implementation. The study reveals that to reach the full performances of BIM, the African AEC industry has to mainly handle the aspects related to skills, bidding, payment, infrastructure, and availability of local construction materials and technologies.
Abstract. Building renovation materials and strategies have a significant impact on the safety, performance, comfortability, energy efficiency, sustainability, and cost of the building. In this paper, we investigated potential materials for retrofitting both structural and non-structural building components through a comprehensive literature review. The objective of this research is to support decisions for retrofitting building materials. Keywords for the literature review search from the databases include building retrofit, structural retrofit materials, cladding retrofit materials, building renovation. For structural building components, three main categories of renovation materials (the fiber-based, cementitious-based, and metal-based materials) and strategies are reviewed in terms of the mechanical properties and application under extreme loading conditions. Structural retrofitting materials have proven to alter the failure mode of structural members (e.g., from shear failure to flexural failure), increase ductility and energy dissipation capacity, and to improve earthquake and wind performance of the overall structural system. In the case of non-structural building components, we focus our review on renovation materials and strategies applied to building envelope systems. Since structural and non-structural components interact with one another, hybrid solutions including structural and energetic performance using lightweight materials should be considered for the renovation of building envelopes and structural systems.
Abstract. The management of culturally diversified team can most often create exasperating management quandaries. However, studies indicate that multicultural project team settings have the potential to achieve higher productivity than homogenous team. Hence, this study is conducted to explore the benefits of multicultural project team settings using the views of professionals in the Ghanaian Construction industry. The study adopted a data reduction technique to examine the benefits of multicultural project team setting. The data was subjected to principal component analysis after passing all of the requisite tests of survey instrument reliability, sample size adequacy, and population matrix, resulting in the identification of three thematic multicultural project team setting benefits. The findings of the study reveal that the three key benefits of multicultural project team setting are promotion of personal and professional growth, provides a strong competitive advantage and an avenue for effective decision-making. The findings of this study are intended to help organisations in managing multicultural team settings in bringing out the best in terms of increased organisational performance. The findings of this study will serve as an important document for the management of multicultural project teams.
Abstract. The general contractors contract the majority of the work on construction projects to sub- contractors. Hence, attracting the next generation of workforce, Generation Z (Gen Z), at the sub- contractor level is critical when addressing workforce issues. Roofing is one of the critical scopes within a construction project provided by a sub-contractor. Gen Z has various characteristics and preferences to consider when attracting them to the roofing industry. One of the significant attraction factors for Gen Z is a visual career path within a specific industry. This paper aims to document a general career path to attract a new generation of professionals and retain current professionals in the roofing industry. A focus group with nine (9) roofing contractor companies from different regions of the U.S. helped map a typical career path and collect information on job responsibilities, compensation for each position, experience requirements, and standard benefits within roofing contracting organizations. Educators, trade schools, and roofing contractors can use the information and the proposed flowchart in response to the need for a visual career path to attract Gen Z workers.
Abstract. The construction trades seek strategies to overcome the labor shortages currently affecting the marketplace. One innovative tool that has gained increased attention is the application of human dimension assessments from the social sciences to the construction trades. For example, this study utilized three human dimension measures – assessments of personality, emotional intelligence, and behavioral tendencies – in the context of project managers (PMs) in the sheet metal and air conditioning trades. This preliminary study assessed 42 PMs from across the United States. The direct supervisors of each PM completed a detailed performance review which was then used to identify the absolute top performers “cream of the crop” from this nationwide pilot study. Analysis revealed several statistically significant differences between the Top-Performing PMs and the remaining participants. Such information is beneficial to the specialty trades in several ways: First, moving toward a nationwide benchmark of human dimensions for PMs from across the country (albeit on a pilot-scale), which can be used for recruitment and talent development purposes. Second, the results contributed to the distinguishing characteristics of Top-Performing PMs, which may be beneficial for internal talent development purposes.
Abstract. The construction industry is an industry that relies heavily on labor and skilled personnel. While workforce shortage is currently increasing due to current market conditions and shifting demographics. Innovative human resource management practices, such as the use of human factor measurements should be developed to overcome the current and future challenges. The study developed a Human Factor (HF) instrument with three components: personality inventory, emotional intelligence, and behavioral measurement. 182 participants within four job roles Project Managers (PMs), Field Leaders (FLs), Estimators (ESTs), and Detailers (VDCs) from the sheet and metal contractors have taken the HF instrument. Comparison results showed that the four job roles have several differences in HF, including FLs had higher Modesty than PMs; FLs had lower Openness to Experience than VDCs; FLs had higher Greed-Avoidance, lower Fairness, and lower Inquisitiveness than ESTs; PMs had higher Dependence, higher Sentimentality, and lower Creativity than VDCs; PMs had lower Prudence than ESTs, and there were no statistically significant differences between VDCs and ESTs. These results can help contractors hire, develop, and maintain talent in their organizations. Given the limited number of participants, future research is recommended to expand the data pool to other specialty trades across the construction industry.
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that influence training and development participation from an employer and employee perspective. A mixed-methods research approach was used to uncover underlying perceptions among employers and employees in relation to soft skills training and development participation decision-making. The employer’s perspective was based on semi-structured interview data from market leading international construction companies. This was triangulated with survey data from the employee’s perspective to generate richer insights. Results suggested a lack of priority among leadership is the main barrier to soft skills training and development for employees, primarily because of the perception of its worth and a lack of time to release employees for training. The research indicates a critical role for leadership to take a lead in enabling soft skill training and development beyond the management layer and allow wider access across the organization. Ongoing training and development in soft skill competencies should be consistently incorporated into the training and development strategies across all levels and disciplines to enhance individual employee productivity as well as overall organizational performance. Furthermore, the findings bring to light the need to measure and link soft skills training and development to individual and organizational performance indicators.
Abstract. Prior to the COVID pandemic, workspace design lowers workstation panels, densifies work seating, and increases spontaneous interaction to provide amenity spaces and engage community collaboration. As a recent response to COVID-19, workplaces were forced to shut down and allow employees to work in the comfort of their homes, allowing the opportunity to re-prioritize their use of time. There are mixed reviews on how employees respond to the work-from-home conversation. However, none of these responses address any of the design trends. This year-long social experiment of working from home informed the future. It provided a new outlook on what employees truly want in workplace design. This study aims to determine which environment allows workers the most productivity and which lifestyle they prefer. Survey and focus group methods were used in this research. The survey questionnaire was sent to the AED community to determine overall productivity, the value of office space amenities and resources, comfort for the personal and professional blend of life. Respondents were narrowed down to the AED (architectural, engineering, design) community to those knowledgeable and experienced in the design trends. Based on the research findings, the workplace would thrive from a normalized hybrid work culture where remotely perform routine tasks. The total elimination of a workplace site may be unrealistic. However, days would be best set at home for routine tasks accounting for most designers. Productivity is studied to be higher while accommodating for a better work-life balance.
Abstract. The primary objective of this research is to characterize job market trends and identify patterns in Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Accountability (IDEA) and Race, Ethnicity, and Language (REAL) in the construction industry. Workforce IDEA and REAL are major concerns in the construction industry. The construction industry has challenges of embracing the workforce IDEA and REAL such as age, language, sexual orientation, and disability. IDEA and REAL have impacts on hiring as well. However, there is a lack of data and research related to IDEA and REAL for the construction industry. In this respect, this research collects construction job market data using web scraping. Text mining techniques are then applied to detect words related to IDEA, REAL, job types, and wage changes during the web scraping period. We devise a new data-driven text mining model including the web scraping technique to provide market trends and identify patterns related to IDEA and REAL in the construction industry. This research will contribute to the body of knowledge of capturing the data regarding IDEA and REAL by harvesting large-scale data across disciplines in a searchable and organized structure.
Abstract. This study aims to gain insight into the preference of field versus office jobs for women in the construction industry. As more women enter this workforce, identifying the reasons for their choices may provide valuable information to remove barriers to their success. Many factors exist that create barriers for women entering the construction field, thus keeping the percentage of females in construction lower than other industries. Likewise, many women in the industry have successful careers and can identify the factors that influenced their preference for field or office. The survey respondents were limited to females that worked or currently work in the construction industry in the U.S. This study found that women in construction preferred work locations depending on their work experience, but they tended to prefer the field when they had experience in both field and office. The intended audiences for this study are construction companies and human resources professionals who would like insight into the factors that influence women’s decisions related to jobs in the industry. Globally, this sector faces a shortage of skilled workers, and creating a more welcoming environment for women workers may alleviate this issue.
Abstract. The rapid and broad shift to Work from Home (WFH) caused by the COVID-19 creates great changes for construction-related employees, which may impact their mental and physical health and further influence organizational management. Demographic indicators are also critical factors influencing mental and physical health. However, the impacts of WFH on mental health were unclear. Also, limited studies explored specific health-related symptoms and demographic differences for construction-related employees considering WFH. This study aims to explore the mental and physical health of construction-related employees considering WFH and demographic indicators using an online survey in the U.S. Based on responses from 73 construction-related employees, two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that age had a significant impact on depression, pain in the neck, shoulders, or back, and eyestrain symptoms, while WFH, gender, and marital status were not significant factors. Employees between 40 – 59 years old had worse mental and physical health, while participants older than 60 years old reported the best mental and physical health. The potential reason is the differences in pressures, abilities, and past experiences among age groups. The findings contribute to the theoretical understanding of construction-related employees’ health and its related factors. The study also helps construction- related employees to improve mental and physical health under the WFH arrangements considering demographic differences and prepare them for future challenges.
Abstract. Several small and medium-size contractors store bid day data regarding potential projects creating large datasets of bid day information without meaningful utilization. Many of these companies fail to leverage the archived bid day data because of their format or lack of effort to use historical data. Thus, most conceptual estimates are done using personal judgment and experience with little to no historical data support. Because of this approach, many small and medium-sized companies lack a data-driven approach to develop conceptual estimates. As such, this study aims at leveraging historical bid data to build a data-driven approach for creating conceptual estimates. This objective is achieved by presenting a framework for one company's historical bid day data to develop a conceptual cost estimating model. The framework uses bid day data for the past 45 years to build a data-driven conceptual estimating model using a case-based reasoning approach. The model allows estimators to retrieve the most similar projects from a historical database to create an informed conceptual estimate for potential projects. It is expected that this research will help many small and medium-size contractors leverage their historical bid data by utilizing it.
Abstract. E-procurement has been a part of several industries for more than three decades now. Although the construction industry is commendable for its wonders, there are few studies about the current applications of E-procurement in construction. The main objective of this research is to survey the construction companies to collect the current practices of E-procurement in construction. A survey was developed and distributed to the construction industry in the U.S., and 409 responses were obtained. The researchers used the survey responses to document the current practices of the companies that use E-procurement. It is expected that documenting the current practices of E- procurement in construction could help enhance construction companies' use of E-procurement successfully to improve their business. Further, the companies that already use E-procurement may optimize their practices. E-procurement can positively impact the construction industry by saving time, money and resolving disputes with suppliers.
Abstract. Cost estimates for Lump Sum (LS) pay items are typically completed using historical information from similar projects or knowledge from subject matter experts. Since LS pay items are mainly unitless and do not have a consistent relationship with their quantities, it imposes a critical burden on estimating accurate prices of LS pay items for highway projects. State highway agencies (SHAs) often encounter significant variations in prices of LS pay items throughout the project development process. Inaccuracies of prices of LS pay items can cause significant cost escalation, project delay, and scope change. However, the current literature indicates that few studies have focused on exploring factors affecting the prices of LS pay items for highway projects. Thus, the overarching objective of this study is to identify and analyze factors affecting the prices of LS pay items used for highway projects. This study analyzed Traffic Control Lump Sum (TCLS) and Grading Complete Lump Sum (GCLS) pay items collected in the state of Georgia, using statistical analysis. This study identified the relationships between the prices of the LS pay items and important project-related factors, such as construction cost, estimated contract time, and major projects. The findings of this study help SHAs estimate more accurate prices of LS pay items and develop more accurate construction costs for highway projects.
Abstract. The objectives of this research are to analyze empirical Right of Way (ROW) acquisition process records to quantitatively determine key project features influencing ROW acquisition durations and examine the spatial variation of the features’ effects. This research used database of 495 projects that finished ROW acquisition process between the year 2010 and 2019 by Georgia Department of Transportation. The multiple linear regression is performed to identify significant variables that impact acquisition duration. Then, the geographically weighted regression analysis is conducted to examine spatial variations of variables’ effects across the geographical locations. Acquisition durations tend to increase as the number of parcels and the average cost estimate per parcel increases, the design is completed by consultant or regional office, and the type of work is roadway and widening projects. The analysis results indicate that variables’ effects vary throughout areas of the state. Therefore, ROW practitioners should consider giving different weights to project features depending on the project’s location when setting the ROW acquisition schedule to reduce risks of schedule delays and cost overruns. It is anticipated that findings of this research will provide insights to ROW practitioners on how to improve ROW acquisition timeline estimations and better manage the risks.
Abstract. Transportation agencies across the United States (U.S.) are under increasing pressure to deliver the Transportation agencies across the United States (U.S.) are under increasing pressure to deliver the project more efficiently and effectively. To meet expectations, the agencies are increasing the rate of procurement of professional consultant services as they are facing various challenges in project scoping process (PSP). Since the scope of services (SOS) and PSP are related to each other, this study is focused on evaluation of the available data addressing the comprehensiveness of the SOS across different states. The authors focused on the design SOS and evaluated 49 documents from 8 state departments of transportation (DOTs). The authors then developed a series of criteria for assessing the comprehensiveness of these selected DOTs. Data analysis indicated significant variations across the states in terms of the criteria. Further, weights were assigned to the identified criteria and sub-criteria using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the SOS documents were ranked for their comprehensiveness. Comprehensive score indices (CCi and CCe) were calculated using the level of comprehensiveness and the level of importance derived from actual SOS document pages and AHP respectively.
Abstract. Sustainable business has been shed light on as a new way of business success by emphasizing global and local responsibility of environment, community, society, and economy in the industry and company levels. Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors of construction companies have often been evaluated by aggregating sustainability performance of their projects. However, the ESG is still underperforming in the project level. Therefore, the objective of this research is to propose the concept of the construction project level ESG (C-ESG) for facilitating sustainability practices in the construction industry. C-ESG intends to guide the valuation of non- financial performance in ESG and to achieve a higher level of sustainable development goals (SDG) for the construction project. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to consolidate evaluation metrics and key concepts in ESG, and adapt the ESG framework to the construction project context. In the project levels, three conceptual applications of the ESG framework can be considered: identifying priority public investment projects, supporting the bid/no-bid decisions, and monitoring and evaluating project progress. This research identified the needs and opportunities of C-ESG. In the future, further studies will be conducted to define key performance indicators (KPIs), metrics, and quantification methods in the three C-ESG types.
Abstract. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was declared as a global health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO) had a profound impact on the construction industry. The disruptions created due to the shutdown of construction projects, manufacturing facilities, and major international transportation hubs because of the pandemic impacted the construction industry which is still unfolding. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on construction project performance using metrics previously established by the Construction Industry Institute (CII). Data was collected through surveys from construction professionals in the US across various sectors of the industry provided valuable insights about the immediate impact of COVID-19 on project performance. Project performance was measured in terms of the CII’s five metrics: cost, schedule, rework, changes, and safety. Out of them, cost, schedule, and changes were significantly impacted due to the pandemic. The survey responses also revealed the measures adopted by companies to abate the effects of COVID-19 on project performance and the steps taken to enhance project performance during this period.
Abstract. Project Management requires a lot of decision-making, with chances of making a better decision increasing with an increase in available data. However, decision-making becomes increasingly difficult and complex as available data increases. The problem that this paper address is the lack of the ability of the rational human mind to process a large amount of data within a short period, thereby making poor decisions that could be influenced by lots of biases and reducing the chances of finding an optimal solution. This presents the need for optimization in decision-making with the aid of non- human intelligence/Artificial Intelligence. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to access the impact of Genetic Algorithms as a tool that can facilitate decision-making without sacrificing useful data that could optimize decision making. This study provides a review of genetic algorithms as an optimization tool for decision-making in project management. A comprehensive study is conducted on relevant literature from reputable journal databases. The study highlights the concept and benefits of genetic algorithm, followed by the drivers, as well as the barriers to its adoption. Findings from this paper will provide an insight into the research trend, level of adoption, and potential research areas in the use of genetic algorithms as a decision-making optimization tool. This study is expected to help project managers make a more informed decision in the adoption of decision-making optimization tools as using the right decision tool will free the human mind from mundane tasks to perform more creative tasks.
Abstract. Leadership in the construction industry can determine the success of a project. However, many emerging construction managers do not understand the different styles of leadership. Three common leadership styles are Autocratic, Democratic, and Laissez-faire. Adapting leadership styles to the situation will have an immediate impact on the success of the leader. The objective of this study was to examine the impact that the situation has on leadership styles with early-career construction managers. Forty-five early career construction managers participated with the study and examined their preferred leadership styles in two different situations. The survey examined the differences in their responses with the two situations. The preferred leadership style that the participants selected was democratic, however in the second situation that presented more stress the participants were more likely to demonstrate Autocratic leadership.
Abstract. This paper succinctly addresses the initial results of the first phase of a study aiming at the application of blockchain technology in project management. In the first stage, the perception of project managers toward the application of blockchain technology in professional areas was explored. After briefly reviewing the concepts of blockchain technology, smart contracts, and integration of the BIM and blockchain, a blockchain network is introduced as a case application in project management. This paper shows that blockchain is a viable system for governing project contracts by automating the consequences of each transaction and maintaining a tamper-proof record of project progress, which would be valuable in any kind of dispute resolution. In addition, the familiarity of project managers with potential applications of blockchain in project management was investigated through a quantitative method via a survey distributed to project managers. The results indicate that the advent of blockchain sets a platform for further integration of technology in various project management areas. The results also show that practical knowledge of project managers through blockchain-based cryptocurrencies correlates with their perceptions toward blockchain applications. The results suggest project managers can plan accordingly to embrace blockchain potentials along with other industries.
Abstract. Planning and scheduling are two essential functions leading to the successful management of a construction project. With more complex projects, more sophisticated clients, and shorter timeframes for project development from inception to completion, new scheduling techniques emerge building on the successes and learning from the failures of previous efforts. One of the relatively new scheduling techniques benefiting from lean construction principles and the application of concepts such as Last Planner and Reverse Phase Scheduling is Flow scheduling. Flow scheduling is becoming gradually a mainstream technique in the scheduling of projects with aggressive schedules. It builds on the concept of Takt, Location Based Management System (LBMS), and Pull scheduling where each participating performer looks at the workflow allowing for the activity to start on time when all the required resources are lined up based on discussions and compromises among project team members. Several factors can enhance or impede the successful implementation of Flow. This paper addresses some of these factors and illustrates the successful use of Flow scheduling through a case study.
Abstract. Previous research studies on the best practices for Construction Site Utilization Planning (CSUP) have been generic leaving decisions about the project-type specific delineation methods to the developers of site utilization plans (SUPs). This case study explored how construction industry professionals working in custom multifamily residential sector implement CSUP. The research objectives were twofold: 1) identifying the factors that affect CSUP for custom multifamily residential developments, and 2) determining the best CSUP practices for custom multifamily residential developments. Six industry professionals working for a custom multifamily residential developer were interviewed in this study. The research findings indicated that CSUP for custom multifamily residential projects should begin during early preconstruction phase, an integrated approach for CSUP should be used, and incorporation of hauling routes and typical temporary facilities at medium level of detail was critical. Some of the best CSUP practices included holding regular meetings with all stakeholders to discuss SUP, its associated updates, and enforcement policies. The interviewees suggested the SUP’s efficacy should be monitored regularly depending on size and complexity of the project. The study findings are significant as they can help construction industry professionals develop more robust SUPs that are unique to the needs of custom multifamily residential developments.
Abstract. Project delay and cost overrun are major issues caused by the associated Risk Factors (RFs) in any projects including Oil and Gas Pipeline Projects (OGPPs). This problem is exacerbated by the subjective nature of the identification and quantification of delay factors t at the planning stage. To overcome above issues, this research designs a Delay Analysis Model (DAM) at planning stage of the project by introducing fuzzy logic in delay analysis; hence, systematize and objectify the quantification of the process. The paper presents a step-by-step process of identifying the RFs and quantifying the probability of project delivery. The main inputs of the model are the RFs, level of impact, and the estimated maximum & minimum duration of each task of the project. The model is integrated within @Risk simulator integrated with Monte Carlo Simulation to quantify the delay impact in projects. The key output of the study is a useful delay analysis tool that help to identify and quantify the potential delay impacts and the confidence level of project deliver in time at the planning stage so that proactive measures could be taken in advance. The model was evaluated using a case study of an OGPP in Iraq. The findings suggested that a potential overall delay at all stages of the project was found around 45 days that might occur due to the associated risk factors in the project.
Abstract. Construction summer experiences in the form of summer camps targeting high school students are becoming more common. These construction summer experiences are critical as they provide high school students the opportunity to learn about construction, career pathways in construction and perhaps motivate them to enroll in one of the nation’s university construction programs. Unfortunately, a theoretical framework to develop and implement construction summer experiences did not exist until recently. This study presents the research results of a pilot implementation of a Summer Experience based on Transformational Leadership and Constructivism theories (SumEx- TLC). More specifically, this paper provides the results in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM), and Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) of a construction transportation infrastructure via summer experience. This one-week hands-on summer experience engaged a small group of minority and economically disadvantaged high school students. During the pilot implementation, data was collected following an exploratory case study with a quasi-experimental design methodology. The pilot study results are encouraging and support the notion of continuing research using similar frameworks with a large-scale implementation.
Abstract. Funded by the Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA), this paper discusses Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) from the perspective of mechanical trade contractors that have been part of IPD projects and serves as a guide for those mechanical contractors interested in expanding their market share into IPD market sectors. Based on in-depth interviews and ‘lessons learned’ from six SMACNA-member contractors who have been trade partners on IPD projects, this paper guides mechanical contractors joining an IPD team and the mechanical trade contractor’s role during design and preconstruction phases and factors for successful construction and project close-out. This paper intends not to provide an overview of the IPD process, as this has been covered in detail with previous research. This paper provides feedback and shares the opinion of mechanical contractors that have previously participated in the IPD process to benefit mechanical contractors not yet familiar with the IPD delivery method.
Abstract. The practice of Facility Condition Assessments (FCA’s) in the built environment can be the first step in development of new business opportunities for architecture, engineering, construction and asset management firms. In the United States, more than $279 billion in building retrofit investment opportunities exist across all market segments, which could yield more than $1 trillion in owner savings over the next 10 years. (Rockefeller Foundation 2012). AEC providers have risen to the need by providing FCA services, however, little is understood of which AEC providers are providing FCA services and project delivery approaches of FCA services. This study identified key inputs and outputs of FCA project delivery, resulting in an FCA project delivery method. Additionally, this study took the first step towards evaluating how FCA results are integrated with technology. This is the first global study of its kind and sets in motion a call for AEC stakeholders to provide FCA interoperability with asset management, facility management and capital planning.
Abstract. In the transportation design-build (DB) industry, the responsibility of the design is transferred to the design-build team from the owner. One of the critical issues for state departments of transportation (DOTs) is design professional liability. To cover designers’ professional negligence, design professional liability insurance (DPLI) should ensure satisfactory coverages in DB projects for state DOTs. The objective of this study is to identify the variability of the DPLI policy requirements that are found in DOT DB projects. This study conducts content analysis and comparative analysis of 15 DOT archival data that consist of design-build agreements and requests for proposals. This study determines six common elements of DPLI requirements: (1) types of DPLI, (2) indemnifying party, (3) coverage amount, (4) extended reporting period, (5) retroactive date, and (6) supplemental policies. The results show that these DPLI policy elements depend on the available customizable options and requirements. Some DOTs tend to explicitly state all six elements, while other DOTs require a few of these six elements. The findings also explain the significant characteristics and implementation of each policy element. Its findings contribute to a better understanding of DPLI requirements and provide opportunities for decision-makers to reduce issues related to insurance coverage gaps.
Abstract. The Design-Manufacture-Construct (DMC) technique is a novel delivery method that decreases construction time and cost while increasing construction intensity compared to a traditional delivery method. The purpose of this study was to understand the time, cost, and construction intensity differences between DMC and the conventional Design-Bid-Build (DBB) delivery method. The study utilized semi-structured interviews (SSI) and quantitative data analysis for investigation. The study included interviews with employees from BLOX LLC (a firm specializing in the DMC delivery method) and includes an analysis of data collected on multiple free-standing emergency department (FSED) projects constructed using both the DMC and DBB delivery methods. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to test hypotheses based on the two delivery methods' time, cost, and construction intensity performance factors to analyze the project data. The results suggested that DMC outperforms DBB in cost performance, supported by inferential statistics data (p≈0.00). Moreover, although inferential statistics do not show any significant difference between DMC and DBB (p > 0.05) concerning time and construction intensity performance, descriptive studies indicated that DMC still performs better than DBB in both these factors.
Abstract. A growing body of previous studies suggested that Alternative Contracting Methods (ACM) could foster constructability, increase innovation, reduce schedules, decrease risks, have a higher project intensity, and eventually save on project costs. The objective of this study was to compare Design- Build procurement and delivery of Bridges in Georgia with Design-Bid-Build in terms of cost, schedule, and intensity. The study used factual data from all Bridges completed using Design-Build and Design-Bid-Build delivery methods between 2008 and 2018. Data points were collected through personal interviews and survey questionnaires with Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) personnel. The intended audiences for the study were State DOT officials engaged in the bridge procurement process. The findings from this study would benefit State DOTs by improving their understanding of the advantages of the Design-Build delivery method, most importantly expediting bridge construction projects in metropolitan areas where each day delay could impact millions of users adversely. The study also provided quantitative evidence in support of advantages achieved from the Design-Build delivery method in terms of cost growth, schedule reduction, and project intensity as compared to the Design-Bid-Build delivery method.
Abstract. Additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional printing (3DP), is a technique of producing desired objects from feedstock, typically filament, input. This process currently has several applications in construction, some with potential for large-scale implementation in industry. Five applications, or alternatives, were considered and compared based on their equipment costs, unit production savings, scalability, output time, and operational crew size. Three alternatives showed the most potential value for implementation into industry. Viable alternatives include 3DP walls, 3DP small offices, and 3DP concrete roof tiles. These viable alternatives were further explained with benefits and impediments that could affect real-world production. Entities that would consider implementing 3DP as a construction method would join other innovative companies at the forefront of utilizing new construction techniques.
Abstract. The 4th industrial revolution is changing every aspect of the construction industry. However, recent studies indicated that, at least for the foreseeable future, most of the new automated technologies will have a complementary role that requires interaction and collaboration with human workers. Therefore, it is critical to prepare and train human workers to work with and alongside robots. Middle-skill workers must gain new skills, knowledge, and abilities to contribute to the industry effectively and stay employed during this technological revolution. To prepare, educate, and train middle-skill workers to embrace the unprecedented changes and get ready for their parts in the automation era, it is critical to, first, analyze and understand how new automated technologies change the work and required qualifications for human workers. This study aims to address this need by proposing a systematic approach based on three types of taxonomies: (1) taxonomy of the work and its tasks, (2) taxonomy of the robot and its functionalities, and (3) taxonomy of the human worker's qualifications. Using these taxonomies, the interactions between the functionalities of a robot, the work, and human workers' requirements are mapped to systematically identify the potential impacts of new technologies on middle-skill workers. The proposed approach is implemented for Hilti’s Jaibot, a semi-automated robot for overhead drilling. The outcomes of this study will help experts systematically design strategic plans to prepare and train middle-skill construction workers to efficiently and successfully work in the digital era.
Abstract. Earthmoving is one of the key activities in most heavy civil construction projects. The dump truck is one primary construction vehicle for earthmoving. Two popular approaches are currently used to estimate earthmoving volume by trucks, i.e., manually counting the number of loaded trucks and weighing loaded trucks on a scale station. Considering both methods are either error-prone, time-consuming, or costly, this study aims to estimate different earth volumes in dump trucks from a single image using the machine learning approach. By establishing a pre-trained deep learning neural network from 3663 images with sixteen different volumes of the earth using a scaled dump truck model, the proposed approach is tested to estimate the truckload in a quantitative manner in real-time. Another 1221 images are used for verification in six case combinations out of the sixteen different volumes. The preliminary results show that the classification accuracy by using the pre- trained network is 100% if the volume gap between adjacent classes is more than 5%, while 76.67% if the volume gap is 1%. The preliminary test results show a great potential that the proposed methods could be applied to the field and provide a fast and accurate estimate of truckload with minimal cost.
Abstract. Construction project management requires frequent inspections to ensure the quality and progress of the construction work. Multiple stakeholders are involved in the inspection process during the project lifecycle. Some project stakeholders, such as architects, owners, structural engineers are involved with multiple construction projects at a time and are responsible to conduct timely inspection and monitoring tasks. This paper studies the potential of Virtual Reality (VR) and robotics for real-time remote inspection. The benefits and challenges of using VR for construction inspection and monitoring were identified and ranked through a systematic literature review. The top 5 benefits were found to be enhanced collaboration, realistic and immersive visualization, remote presence, reduction in inspection time, and support for decision-making. The top 5 challenges identified in this study include low- resolution displays, limited integration with existing technologies (such as BIM), causing disorientation and dizziness for the user, cost of adoption, and job site internet access limitations. Finally, a new approach was investigated for using VR to enable an immersive experience in remote inspection with an inspector assistant robot for real-time remote construction inspection. The experimental investigation verified the identified benefits and challenges.
Abstract. To automate clash resolution tasks, it is important to capture domain knowledge for the Machine Learning (ML). One way to add domain knowledge is by training data that divides tasks into input and output variables. The selection of input variables that are most relevant to a task is an important step towards automation. In this paper, the authors detail framework that uses literature review, industry interviews, and Modified Delphi to capture domain knowledge for clash resolution. The features identified through this paper can in future be processed through Feature Selection, that can provide empirical evidence of why the selected features or set of features are important to ML algorithm. Data collection processes discussed in this paper is not finalized and is discussed to help provide readers with framework of the proposed systematic method. Factors considered when resolving clashes were identified through literature review (22 factors) and industry interviews (16 factors). 14 factors identified from the interviews had a similar matching factor in the literature reviewed, the other 2 factors were not mentioned in any publications found during the initial literature review. After comparing results from literature review and interviews, 13 factors were considered critical for automating clash resolution.
Abstract. Studies investigating the construction project stakeholders experience with implementing laser scanning and photogrammetry as Reality Capture Technologies (RCT) in the US commercial building sector are limited. Therefore, this study explored the status of construction project stakeholders experience with the use of RCT. The research aimed to answer questions regarding stakeholder’s personal experience with RCT and their companies’ use of RCT on commercial projects, RCT use on the specific commercial building project types, and use of RCT on both new construction and renovation projects in the commercial sector. A survey was distributed to owners/developers, designers, contractors, and Construction Managers (CMs)/owner representatives in the US. Survey findings indicated that the majority of the respondents had heard of RCT, used RCT personally, and worked for the companies that used RCT on their projects. Core and shell buildings, healthcare, and education projects were the major commercial project types on which participants reported using RCT. Additionally, participants reported implementing RCT on both new construction and renovation projects. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing the current status of RCT use on commercial building projects by US construction project stakeholders.
Abstract. Field trips are an integral part of students’ education, especially for those pursuing a degree in construction or engineering where practical experience is needed to understand the complexities of the profession. University programs struggle to provide adequate field trip experiences due to several reasons, including limited project availability, travel costs, and safety concerns. One option that has become increasingly prevalent, is the implementation of virtual field trips (VFTs). VFTs provide educators and students a flexible option to view and experience various projects from their personal computer or mobile device. This paper provides an exploratory overview of students' perspectives of real field trips (RFTs) in comparison to VFTs. A VFT was created using StructionSite, Inc. and a 360-degree camera, and compared to the same project that was visited in person, as a RFT by a different group of students. Pre and post surveys were used to sample construction management students studying commercial construction at a major university. The main findings were VFTs and RFTs both contributed to students’ interest in commercial construction. Students perceived VFTs as a valuable resource that can be used to contribute to knowledge and skill attainment. In addition, VFTs were viewed as a valuable aspect in a students’ education that can supplement certain types of RFTs, but students agreed VFTs should not replace RFTs completely.
Abstract. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are considered as the one of main components of the future transportation system. By 2040, over 90% of the vehicles are expected to be autonomous vehicles in the U.S. Therefore, it is imperative that the infrastructure systems, including highways and roads, need to be updated accommodate AVs before they become prominent in the transportation system. The main benefits of AVs are easing congestion, shortening commutes, reducing fuel consumption and global warming, enhancing accessibility, the liberation of parking spaces for better uses, and improving public health and social equity. To provide the current state of adaptation of AVs into highways and roads, the objectives of this paper are to investigate the current legislation and to explore impacts from the implementation of AVs and consequence considerations. Since Michigan is the home to one permanent testing site for autonomous vehicles, Michigan was selected as a case study in this paper. By providing an overview of the current implementation of AVs in the U.S., this paper will bring a comprehensive understanding of the adaptation of AVs so far and provide insights into future directions for a better implementation.
Abstract. This article analyzes two virtual 3D point-cloud models, generated via terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR), to compare the relative inaccuracies in distances introduced by two different georeferencing approaches. One is rapid (~30 seconds per ground point) and commonly used in practice, the Real-Time, Kinematic (RTK) Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) approach, and the other is a more accurate, but time consuming (4 hours per ground point), Static GNSS scheme. The goal is to determine statistical length discrepancies in the same distances extracted from two differently georeferenced 3D models of the same spatial geometry. Currently, this type of comparison is not readily available to practitioners and could assist in selecting the type of GNSS-based georeferencing procedure. The modeled area encompasses ~30,000 ft2 of a university campus and includes the exterior portion of a building. To determine the discrepancy in measured distances from the two differently georeferenced models, the same one hundred points were identified simultaneously in each of them, and the same 600+ distances were virtually extracted from each model. Then, the discrepancy of each pair of corresponding distances was calculated and its statistics were determined. A full analysis of those discrepancies is presented in this article.
Abstract. One main barrier to the proliferation of sustainable mass-timber structures across the United States, is construction and development teams' unfamiliarity with scheduling and efficiently managing the construction of mass-timber structural system. A comprehensive understanding of the schedule associated with the construction of mass-timber versus typical concrete structures provides important data metrics for teams deciding on utilizing this material and method. This study compares simulated manpower loaded schedules of traditional concrete construction applications with that of a real-time, mass-timber construction project. The study produces practical outputs that highlight schedule efficiencies in mass-timber applications, when compared to cast-in-place concrete method. The study found that the mass-timber crew erected 2,323 square feet of structure per day, while a concrete crew would erect 1,825 square feet per day. Additionally, the study found that the concrete crew had more than twice as many workers as the mass timber crew with less production.
Abstract. This paper aims to identify the construction-related strategies in smart cities that could assist contractors in disrupting traditional construction processes using new technologies and processes. In this research, a thematic analysis was conducted to categorize the construction-related strategies in different themes by analyzing the smart cities' documents. The publicly available documents of 24 smart cities in the United States and around the globe, along with four international governments whose action plans will disrupt traditional construction processes, were analyzed. Based on the results, 29 action plans in six different themes were identified, including 1) Modern Infrastructure, 2) Livable Climate, 3) Efficient Mobility, 4) Education/Training, 5) Inclusive Economy, and 6) Affordable Housing. This paper shows that several smart cities have implemented some construction-related action plans, but other cities have no strategies related to the construction industry. The results of this paper could be helpful for further research to identify the future direction of construction in smart cities and define the knowledge and requirements needed for contractors to implement the action plans in smart cities.
Abstract. Eco-efficient construction is a broad topic that incorporates many facets of high-performance building practices, sustainability principles, life-cycle analysis considerations, and cost valuation of implementing methods, materials, and processes. New technologies play a significant role in the development of sustainable materials and methods in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. Nanotechnology and 3D printing are on the cutting edge of current research and development and exemplify sustainably focused eco-technologies. The study and implementation of nanotechnology and 3D printing are essentially emphasized by the focus on sustainability. This study investigates the advancement of nanomaterials and 3D printing and seeks to determine their current state of development and implementation in the AEC industry. In addition, concepts of sustainability are reviewed to reveal how they are aligned with eco-construction. Methods of evaluation are explored to better understand how sustainable building practices are supported in the AEC industry.
Abstract. As one of the major industries that consume vast energy annually, the built environment industry is continuously exploring new building designs that would satisfy both occupants and the sustainability requirements. Considered as a new trend of building design for achieving economic, environmental, and occupant satisfaction goals, smart buildings are gaining momentum in research and development. Occupant-based design is considered an innovative idea for smart building automation systems as it aspires to focus on satisfying occupant’s needs while saving energy and reducing waste. This positioning paper argues that next in the evolution of buildings is conscious intelligent buildings, characterized by their cognitive capabilities, creativity, and empathy akin to human self-awareness. Based on the literature review which served as the methodology, the evolving advancements in meta-data, Internet of Things (IoT), and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are potentially making this next paradigm possible. As for results, this article proposes a framework for defining conscious intelligent building. Its unique characteristics and underlying vision provide a new paradigm for leveraging big data analytics in the built environment. Enabled with cognitive and empathic interaction with the occupants, this achievement of higher intelligence can alter human-building relationship toward trust and thus increasing occupants’ satisfaction and emotional health in the built environment.
Abstract. Recent advancements in the construction industry include the expanding application of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) throughout the lifecycle of construction projects. These advancements result in significant increases in technical capabilities within construction as well as time and money- savings. Despite their abilities to improve efficiency by enhancing construction processes and practices, little is known about the current state of applications and the barriers to UASs successful adoption. The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate the current state of UASs practice for various applications within the construction industry by providing a literature review and a series of interviews with construction professionals and UAS pilots. The outcome identifies key UASs applications including pre-construction, surveying, project progress monitoring, safety management, and quality management. In addition, the study documents low awareness of UASs applications among construction professionals, and outlines professional training requirements, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) licensing requirements, capital requirements, and a range of implementation challenges. Understanding the applications of UASs in construction supports construction firms to achieve improved efficiencies in various construction activities where UASs can be deployed.
Abstract. Tool tracking and inventory management on a construction project is often more reactive than proactive. It is not that tools are not of value, but to larger firms, a certain comfort level exists with a loss to a relatively small line item, especially when compared to the resources that may be expended to track the tool inventory. With current market construction robotics serving a number of uses, testing multiple applications of autonomous robots creates more return for end-users. This research aims to execute a proof of concept for automated tool tracking using an autonomous robot and RFID technology. The research was carried out with three types of scans namely: Human held RFID reader; Robot mounted RFID reader in manual mode; Robot mounted RFID reader in autonomous mode. A total of 39 tools were tagged using passive UHF RFID tags and the study looked at the average cycle count time it took time to read 39 tags for the three scan types and the reliability of the robot and RFID technology. Results show reliability of the autonomous robot in acquiring RFID information, including zero failures in tag identification and autonomous guidance.
Abstract. The significantly increased usage of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) and photogrammetry technologies in the construction industry underlines the need to integrate such technologies within the educational curricula. This paper presents the lessons learned from a recent effort to integrate a UAS-Photogrammetry module in a technology-based construction management course. Specifically, the goal was to enable students to better understand the generated point clouds through interpreting and comparing their visual quality differences while studying how common flight parameters [i.e., ground sampling distance (GSD), image angle, image combination] might affect them. This course module consisted of a theoretical knowledge part followed by a hands-on training part. As a part of this module, students generated point clouds, performed photogrammetric measurements, and conducted detailed comparisons based on different flight parameters. The module could provide construction students an opportunity to better understand and assess the effects of different UAS flight parameters on the quality of the generated photogrammetric point clouds.
Abstract. The use of technology and learning management systems (LMS) has significantly advanced program assessment in higher education. Accreditors and researchers have affirmed that systematic approaches to program assessment are paramount for improving student learning and making strategic decisions in academic units. These structured approaches contribute to providing consistent and reliable data that can be used to make more informed decisions for planning and determining resource allocations. One of the challenges institutions face is creating a system that is adaptable and can be used across academic units and accrediting bodies. Another challenge is finding new ways to encourage or incentivize faculty to actively engage in assessment related activities. This study focusses on the development and implementation of an assessment framework for three construction related degree programs. The system was designed to be adaptable to accommodate the reporting needs of multiple accrediting bodies and to encourage faculty engagement in the process. The framework has been implemented and used in writing an accreditation self-study. The system has undergone a complete implementation cycle with most courses in the curriculum and this study can be viewed as ongoing in nature.
Abstract. For years, the construction industry was notorious for being slow in adopting new technologies. However, in the past decade, this trend started to change. Technologies such as building information modeling (BIM), drone, autonomous equipment, 3D printing, artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality (VR), and augmented reality (AR) were developed and used by the industry at a breakneck speed. While VR/AR technologies have been around for quite a long time, they have been gaining more attention by the AEC (Architecture, Engineering, and Construction) industry recently. These technologies have proven to benefit construction projects in many ways. From preconstruction to construction, they can add value and save time and money. One of the great advantages of these technologies is training for jobsite safety and hazard recognition. To create more interactive learning experience and prepare students for a rapidly changing industry, VR technology was utilized in Construction Safety and Risk Management class in the Construction Management program at Wentworth Institute of Technology. This paper describes how VR technology was incorporated as a pilot study into the class curriculum and provided students with a different and more engaging learning experience, as well as how it helped them learn the subject matter better.
Abstract. The introductory courses in applied science education are formative and shape problem-solving skills. The application of gained knowledge beyond college is crucial to the success of engineers in the industry. As hands-on, active learning is key to understanding and analyzing a problem, the traditional instructional method often lacks these components. Courses such as Engineering Dynamics are usually deemed hard because the classroom experience does not augment the visualization of parts in motion. In this pilot study, the student's learning outcome in an Engineering Dynamics course was assessed by comparing the students' performance in solving dynamic problems with and without computer simulation models. Measuring student scores in problem-solving exercises, this paper demonstrated that computer-generated simulation models could be beneficial for the students to better grasp the dynamic concepts through engaging in active learning. Statistically significant differences were shown in the score when comparing a student group that used interactive simulation models to solve a dynamic problem with another group that had access to a stationary figure describing the system's initial state.
Abstract. At the University of Oklahoma, the Construction Science Division provides a Hands-on Class in which Construction Management students get the opportunity to learn construction methods and materials while building with their hands. In 2018, the graduate and undergraduate level course constructed two multi-family (2,936 Square Feet) dwellings in Norman, Oklahoma during the Spring semester. The units were purchased from the Norman Housing Authority and now provide housing for low-income citizens within the University community. The goal of this paper is to record and present the Kinesthetic and Collaborative pedagogies used in this unique class. A brief literature review explores the previous research on Kinesthetic and Collaborative pedagogies. The case study includes discussion on how the project was planned, designed, funded, and executed. The case study also presents how the class was coordinated, how student and subcontractor labor was utilized, the challenges faced during this process and future recommendations for similar classes. This case study adds to the body of knowledge by providing a detailed description of a Construction Education course that adds value to the local community by designing and building low-income housing.
Abstract. This paper contributes to the current discussions and research on the use of 3D digital technologies in teaching and learning. It specifically focuses on the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) in construction management higher education. There were three objectives: (1) to check the impact of this approach on student learning (2) to determine which factors increased the perception of immersion (3) to assess whether this type of learning could affect cognitive change. A VLE of a construction site and related scenarios were used to develop a set of learning outcomes focused on soft-skills. Utilizing Virtual Reality (VR) to create an immersive environment, the VLE enables a student to work on a construction site, undertaking real life scenarios and interacting with people to enhance leadership, behavioural health, safety, quality, and productivity skills. A series of individual scenarios were developed to help contextualize the learning outcomes. These scenarios were based around a day managing a construction site. The immersive simulations were underpinned with pedagogical tools and structures, namely the Kolb Experiential learning Model and Gibbs Model of Reflection (Kolb, 1984; Gibbs, 1988). The experiential learning allows the student to make decisions and understand the consequences. The learning takes place in a safe environment which negates impact on a real job site and is reinforced through feedback, knowledge sharing, and mentoring. The assessment involved questionnaires designed to evaluate the impact of experiential learning, assess which aspects of the simulation had the greatest impact in relation to the feeling of immersion, and to assess whether this type of teaching could affect cognitive change. The results indicate that the students perceived the method to be effective and highlighted 3 key factors relating to immersion - the actors, the site office, and the site paperwork. The outcome of the third objective was not conclusive and further research on long term cognitive change is recommended.
Abstract. Estimating is an essential part of any construction firm and a core subject in construction management education. Construction faculty should make every effort to align their courses with the needs of industry. A survey was completed by members of the American Society of Professional Estimators and the McWhorter School of Building Science Industry Advisory Council to determine what software was most prevalently utilized in industry for material quantification and cost estimating. A total of 186 practitioners responded to the survey. On-Screen Takeoff and Bluebeam were found to be the most commonly used software for material quantification and Microsoft Excel for cost estimating. Most respondents did not utilize BIM for material quantification but did consider that functionality as valuable when assessing new software. The results of the survey built on similar previous research both of industry and academic practices. Specific differences in the research findings are highlighted, and recommendations for construction faculty are provided. Future research should seek to understand software utilization by construction estimating faculty to compare with industry practices.
Abstract. A capstone course is the apex of a bachelor’s degree. It is an integrative course that embeds professional and business skills and it is based on the application of knowledge to real-world situations. Despite its importance, there is a lack of information about how construction programs organize their capstone offerings and what is included in these offerings. To this point, the present exploratory study surveys construction programs to determine basic course characteristics. To obtain this information, we reviewed 127 ASC-affiliated undergraduate programs in the United States to find that 112 programs had a capstone or capstone-related course. Most programs require only one capstone course, offered for a median of 3 credit hours. Through content analysis of course descriptions, the authors provide the main topics addressed by construction capstones. Main findings suggest oral communication and collaboration as main soft skills covered in capstones; project management, estimating, and scheduling as the top three technical content; and, simulation as the most frequent course format. Findings provide a comprehensive view of how capstones are being offered in construction undergraduate programs in the United States and can be helpful to construction programs’ instructors and administrators looking to improve their students’ capstone experiences.
Abstract. Emphasis on universities to increase the value of the education they provide has been mounting for several years. Through the COVID-19 pandemic, students, parents, and educators have become more aware of the value associated with the traditional relational approach of in-person educational experiences. The COVID-19 pandemic provided an unexpected opportunity to conduct a world- wide test drive of online learning, which only highlighted concerns about the return on investment in higher education. High Impact Educational practices have been seen to elevate the student learning experience and have become an initiative for many universities. This study investigated HIP participation by built environment students at one university to better understand the frequency of student participation and the impact of their participation. The results indicated that all students in the built environment disciplines participate in at least one HIP before graduating, and many participate in numerous HIPs. However, less than 20% of students identify HIP participation as a peak learning moment in the college career.
Abstract. Climate change has redirected the global focus towards creating a more sustainable and resilient built environment. As natural disasters have been occurring at a higher frequency, buildings and infrastructure systems need to be prepared to withstand the more disastrous events. Furthermore, with an increase in the world’s population and the shortage of resources in various parts of the world, it is necessary to think about sustainability and resilience in conjunction with every aspect of the built environment, including the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) education. Therefore, this research study proposes a unique sustainability and resilience educational course structure that improves the understanding of these concepts in the built environment. This research study introduces a framework that can act as a guideline for sustainability and resilience education integration within various courses across any college campus to further the awareness about sustainability and resilience. The study introduces the course structure and development methods in creating new, flexible, and innovative modules that can be customized to the different educational needs and cover several student learning outcomes which can help prepare the new generations to become conceptually, spatially, and temporally aware while they interact and develop the built environment of the future.
Abstract. This research details the design and implementation of a programmable assessment matrix that helps educational institutions coordinate their programs for assessment missions. The assessment matrix was developed and applied to support the accreditation of the Construction Management program recently developed at the University of Wyoming. It is organized in a x-y axis format where users can archive and review required assessment documentation over time including grades, instructor’s evaluation, course evaluation feedback (indirect assessment), and student work (direct assessment). Observations such as simplicity of reviewing information for each course and holistic display of the curriculum are recurrent advantages identified by instructors and administrators in the program, which led to course and curriculum reviews on a semester-by-semester basis. Drawbacks pertaining to the sophistication of the matrix can be solved by working alongside with computer programming personnel and developing a tutorial video. A utility function of the matrix demonstrated that students not always have an accurate perception of understanding of a specific Student Learning Outcome, which prompted modifications to the course curriculum and assessment surveys. The assessment matrix can be used to enhance any academic program in its accreditation mission.
Abstract. The construction industry could enormously benefit from the young graduates starting their professional journey well equipped with the necessary ethical principles. This study mainly intended to see if there is a relationship between the personalities of construction engineering students and their views of ethics in the construction industry. It evaluated their perceptions of ethical practices in the industry along with their reactions to an unethical scenario of cost inflating payment games in a company. A total of 127 students from across three universities, University of Kansas, Arizona State University and University of North Carolina at Charlotte, participated in the study. The results showed that the students’ views of ethical principles are indeed related to some of their personality descriptors.
Abstract. To effectively prepare construction and engineering students for their careers as building professionals, it is imperative for educators to understand what teaching methods are effective to enhance student learning in project scheduling. Technical skills, like project scheduling, rely heavily on practical experience and instructors face the difficult task of how to replicate this experience to enhance student learning. This paper provides a summary of the current instructional delivery methods utilized in a scheduling course at a major university and evaluates the delivery methods and what students perceive as most, and least effective in regard to learning how to create, manage and update a project schedule. The major finding, based on student feedback was the demand for additional visual learning experiences to further develop students’ understanding of construction scheduling. These visual experiences include the implementation of visuals exploring jobsite examples as well as time-lapse videos showing the processes and sequence of activities. In addition, the overall results of the student surveys are presented, discussed, and evaluated. This information may assist educational and industry programs interested in developing scheduling course material, based on the needs reported by students.
Abstract. Field trips or site visits provide valuable learning opportunities in construction education. However, traditional field trips often face challenges such as accessibility, logistics, weather, safety, to name a few. The recent global pandemic and its stipulations on social distancing add another layer of complexity to implement. Alternative field trips such as virtual field trips (VFTs), which are usually enabled by technology innovations, can help overcome these barriers. Previous VFT researchers shared promising results in providing a rich learning experience to students while also noting the lack of robustness and immersiveness. This study aims to develop a prototype of an immersive VFT solution with virtual reality (VR) to facilitate field knowledge transfer in construction education. The paper presents the VFT development process and shares preliminary results of student learning and user experience data from the first prototype. Findings of this pilot study suggest that a key advantage of VFTs over traditional field trips resides in the opportunity of learning iteration, which is essential to successful knowledge acquisition in the cognitive learning domain. The preliminary analysis on the correlation between student performance and media types of information also provides insights into future VFT design based on the multimedia learning framework.
Abstract. The COVID-19 pandemic created a new set of restrictions and safety protocols for the residential construction industry. Many jurisdictions began placing social distancing practices on building inspectors, limiting their ability to visit the jobsite. This adjustment required residential contractors and inspectors to adapt to virtual inspections using videotelephony, photographs, or recorded videos. As this inspection method gains traction in the residential industry, questions arise regarding its benefits, drawbacks, and industry acceptance. This case study analyzes the perceptions and experiences of five separate homebuilders in Yolo County, California. Semi- structured interviews were conducted with five residential general contractors, transcribed, and thematically analyzed to discover reoccurring patterns and ideas. Throughout the interviews, six significant themes emerged including familiarity with the technology, time and cost impacts, applicability, accuracy, homebuilders’ preference, and future considerations. Based on the interviews, homebuilders believe the new technology has potential time and cost savings. There are some concerns with the technology's accuracy as virtual inspections can inhibit the inspector's visibility, in certain scenarios. However, all general contractors interviewed agreed they would like to see a hybrid system in the future that allows for virtual and in-person inspections, and also agreed that not all items are appropriate for remote inspections.
Abstract. Construction projects are spatially and temporally dual-dynamic in nature. One of the technical challenges in teaching the construction process is how to describe the spatial lay- out of construction components. Virtual reality (VR) combined with Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology (BIM-VR) has been adopted in the construction industry for years as a communication tool between stakeholders. The technology can be used to create simulations that allow employees to get an immersive experience of a construction process that has not started, to identify potential problems before construction start, and prepare construction workers for hazards that may occur on construction sites. In this paper, the author reports the findings on evaluating the effectiveness of BIM-VR technology in en- hancing students’ spatial cognition skills of building and construction components. The evaluation was conducted using two different quantitative approaches. First, the before and after scores of students’ spatial cognition skills were measured. The statistics of score changes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology. Then, an assessment was conducted in which a survey was sent to students after completion of the course to gauge their feedback on the effectiveness of the BIM-VR application which had a positive trend.
Abstract. Technology use has significantly increased in the construction industry. The industry creates large amounts of confidential, sensitive, or proprietary information which is susceptible to unauthorized access by cybercriminals and access to network infrastructure can create havoc on construction companies. Construction students must apply electronic-based technology to manage the construction process, but based on various cyber incidents, construction students should also understand their responsibility regarding cybersecurity when working with the various technology. The problem is that it is already difficult to incorporate new content in an already tight construction curriculum and there is no academic literature that provides guidance on how to teach this type of topic. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide the course development process undertaken to develop a module on cybersecurity for construction. Using this framework in combination with a three-phase framework, the authors have outlined the assumptions about the learner and society; the aims and objectives; content or subject matter with its selection, scope and sequence; modes of transaction; and evaluation methods for the module. The authors expect that this module will be used by educators to further cybersecurity instruction which will hopefully mitigate cybersecurity incidences in the construction industry.
Abstract. College graduates entering the workforce today are being trained to meet the future needs of their rapidly evolving industries. As such, educators are constantly adapting their curriculum to the dynamic changes to prepare well-rounded professionals. Some are leveraging classroom teaching strategies that include new and hybrid learning methods such as flipped classrooms and self-paced independent studies. The Construction Management Technology (CMT) program at Purdue University underwent a sweeping change in its curriculum four years ago, with courses redesigned to better fit the dynamic expectations of the construction industry. However, such radical changes can unintentionally create a learning environment which affects students’ motivation to learn and their self-determination. This study dives into the learners’ perspectives using Small Group Instructional Diagnoses (SGIDs) and connects it to self-determination theory (SDT). Ethnographic data from 334 students across five courses were collected. Data were conceptually and thematically linked to three student motivation factors based on SDT. It was found that learners were approving of the structure of the redesigned curriculum. Findings also showed that while the students’ motivation was mainly built around competency and autonomy, students also identified relatedness as a supporting factor for success.
Abstract. The collaborative learning approach has been used for Construction Management (CM) courses to enhance students’ learning. Few existing studies reported the effectiveness of collaborative learning in terms of assessment score in CM online courses: existing literature found the effectiveness of collaborative learning in CM courses based on students’ perception. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of collaborative learning approach in an online CM course in two ways: in terms of 1) student’s assessment score and 2) students’ perception. Students in a CM course taught by the first author were grouped into two: the experimental group with collaborative learning experience and the control group without collaborative learning experience. Their assessment scores and their perceptions on collaborative learning experience were examined in this research. The test scores and students’ response to the questionnaire survey showed a mixed result. While the students in the experimental group perceived that collaborative learning was helpful in their learning, there was no significant difference in the assessment scores between the two groups. The finding from this study can help CM educators by providing a quantitative and qualitative study on the effectiveness of collaborative learning in online CM courses.
Abstract. The flipped classroom approach is a pedagogical method for students' active learning and engagement in learning activities. Many Construction Management (CM) educators have adopted this pedagogical method and confirmed its benefits in classroom teaching. However, the effectiveness of the flipped classroom model on students' learning in 100% synchronous online courses, specifically for CM education, is not reported. Considering a massive shift to virtual learning during the Pandemic, CM educators need to understand the feasibility and effectiveness of flipped classrooms for online courses, which is the focus of the current study. This paper initially presents the technologies and methods adopted in this study to transform two online CM courses into a flipped approach. Later, the flipped classroom model's effectiveness is assessed through student feedback. The results indicated a mixed response from the students regarding the effectiveness of the flipped classroom model over traditional teaching. Although around two-thirds of the student body recommend the flipped classroom model over conventional education, they now prefer conventional face-to-face teaching over the online flipped classroom. This mixed response may be due to the lethargy caused by complete remote learning in 2020 due to Covid-19.
Abstract. This paper presents an analysis of the learning outcomes of a four-year baccalaureate degree program in construction management. The learning outcomes usually contain an action verb, a statement of the content to be learned and a description of the context of the learning. A textual analysis is performed to assess the distribution and frequency of occurrence of action verbs and to find most frequently occurring key words in the courses. The action verbs used in the learning outcome statements are tabulated in the schema of a revised Bloom’s taxonomy. The analysis shows that although the action verbs can describe different cognition levels of the learners as they progress from 1st year to 4th year, the frequency of occurrence and distribution of the action verbs are not sufficient descriptors of the depth and breadth of the content covered. The analysis presents an approach that can be used to map learning outcomes of different courses and their correspondence with general learning outcomes of the program and to compare and standardize programs in construction management. The level of cognition and the content of cognition both are equally important when mapping courses within a program or using learning outcomes in benchmarking and standardizing two different programs.
Abstract. Site visits or field trips are widely recognized by construction educators to engage students in active learning, supplement traditional lessons, and achieve better student learning experiences. However, site visits pose significant logistical and accessibility challenges for educational institutions and teachers, limiting the number of students who can benefit from them. Moreover, the restrictions on site visits have widened recently, as the reality of COVID-19 public health concerns have compelled instructors to fast-transition to online course delivery, canceling most site visits. The purpose of this study is to present construction students with online site visits to supplement contextualized learning in risky, unsafe, or impossible-to-achieve situations. In this project, Mozilla Hubs® was used to establish a virtual collaborative environment that resembled a real-world site visit to a building facility. A pilot study (i.e., a plan-reading assessment) was employed within the virtual environment that provided affordances involving an in-depth learning experience through collaborative communication. The findings demonstrate that virtual collaborative site visits give unique chances to deliver spatiotemporal contexts of sites online and provide an effective remote alternative when these learning opportunities are unavailable.
Abstract. Technology adoption and innovation play important roles in maintaining a competitive advantage for construction companies and are known to have considerable influences on the performance of construction projects. However, the construction industry is very slow in technology adoption because of a wide range of cultural and organizational barriers. More importantly, one of the main barriers that have merely been discussed is the industry readiness for implementing new technologies. To prepare the next generation of professionals to adopt and diffuse new construction technologies, construction education needs to “set the pace” by understanding current and future construction industry challenges and potential technological developments solutions. With the notion that there are disparities of current construction education regarding adopting new construction technologies, this pilot study aimed to examine the undergraduate engineering student learning outcomes through an active and interactive-learning activity about technology adoption theory with the industry professionals. The feedback obtained from students demonstrated that their understandings of new construction technologies, teamwork skills, and intellectual and critical thinking skills were improved through the activity. The results will contribute to a larger-scale study that aims to identify the areas that need improvements and realignments to the construction management curriculum for both academia and practice.
Abstract. Construction industry needs skilled workers, and professional certification is a way to get them. Senior level construction management (CM) students can take Associate Constructor (AC) exam as one of the first certifications as they transition into the industry. However, fewer graduating students are AC certified. The value of certifications and increasing popularity of the AC exam can motivate students to take the exam to gain professional credential and recognition. Also, the exam being reflective of the CM curriculum can motivate students to get certified. Therefore, this research assessed the correlation between undergraduate GPA (UGPA) and AC exam scores of CM seniors. The hypothesis was that there would be a positive relationship between UGPA and AC exam scores. The independent variable was UGPA while the dependent variable was the AC exam score. SAS studio facilitated the statistical analysis of the data obtained from an accredited CM undergraduate program in the south eastern part of the USA. The result showed a strong positive correlation between the scores thereby supporting the hypothesis. It was concluded that CM students needed to consider AC exam as one of the certifications as they go into the construction industry especially when their academic performances are good.
Abstract. Field trips are widely recognized as an essential educational component to connect classrooms with the real world. When students don’t have access to real field trips, virtual ones have been developed by educators and researchers. Pedagogical agents have been applied to serve as a tour guide and educational tool that facilitate students learning in a virtual learning environment. Such agents are computer software generated and controlled entities that replicate or emulate humans. Previous studies have found that adding anthropomorphic traits to pedagogical agents in learning environments has significantly improved students’ learning experience; however, this area has yet been explored in the context of a virtual construction field trip. In this study, a virtual field trip to a complex mechanical room was developed using 360-degree panoramas and a pedagogical agent was employed to lead the tour. This study focuses on one single anthropomorphic trait - deictic gestures, which are pointing gestures used to refer to specific objects – and explores how such trait affects students’ quantitative learning outcomes and feedbacks on four aspects of the agent, including facilitating learning, credibility, human-like, and engaging. It was found that deictic gestures can improve students’ learning performance and attitudes on multiple aspects of the agent.
Abstract. Over 12.5 million families in South Africa live in slums without access to adequate housing. Previous studies projected that meeting housing demand in South Africa will take hundreds of years with the available resources and technologies. Therefore, achieving sustainable and affordable housing solutions remain a pressing goal. This study assessed the perception of experts and end-users on the barriers to the use of sandbag material technology as a Sustainable Affordable Housing Solution in South Africa. The study draws on focus group discussions held with 12 leading experts on alternative technologies and local South African end-users to obtain data to address the research objective. It emerged that lack of social acceptance, lack of support from the government, limited Professional Expertise, and Access to finance are barriers to the use of sandbag material technology in South Africa. The study concludes with some recommendations and adds significantly to the limited knowledge on alternative building material technologies such as Sandbag technology.
Abstract. Cooling a building can be approached with several different methods, but determining which method to pursue can be a matter of operator preference. This study examines four equipment systems of building cooling (Variable Refrigerant Flow, Rooftop Units, Hydronic Chiller, and Split Systems) and their capacities, abilities, and inabilities. These systems are then compared against one another for efficiency and operating cost in a one-year timeframe. Yearly operating cost, energy usage, and system operating time were analyzed from each unit’s performance and then compared against one another. The efficiencies, energy usage, and cost are compared to find the most efficient and cost-effective system for various owner needs and applications. Depending on the performance of the individual systems, it may be more suited to a specific application. Variable Refrigerant Flow was the most efficient due to its method of heat rejection and higher efficiency components. The chiller was also an efficient option, with the heat rejection through water being an efficient method. Rooftop units and split systems were less efficient but lowered initial capital cost. Overall, capital cost and operating expense priority determine the best method for an individual application.
Abstract. The challenges posed by the degradation of the planet’s environment are of increasing importance. The United Nations have called for a substantial reduction of climate change pollutants such as carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq) within the next decade. The construction industry and building operations contribute an estimated 39% of the worldwide CO2eq, with 28% attributed to operational emissions and the remaining 11% to embodied emissions. This case study analyzes the embodied CO2eq by the structural portion of three residential construction projects in Costa Rica using two building systems. One building system is widely used locally, consisting of load-bearing concrete masonry unit walls and concrete elements. The other building system is a recently introduced alternative based on light gauge steel framing and paneling. The analysis shows that the light gauge steel frame alternative is more efficient in terms of embodied CO2eq by 33% averaging the three models which translates to 52.4 kgCO2eq saving per square meter of living space built. The research is limited to the three models examined, which were representative of low income, middle complexity, and higher-end types of local housing units. Construction time, cost, and other factors were not considered in this study.
Abstract. The disposal of construction and demolition waste has an impact on the environment. This study focuses on the end-of-life stage to assess a virtual office building, by applying a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) and used Athena software. The study determined LCA methods, and software tools based on a thorough literature review and then assessed the environmental impact of steel versus wood materials on a virtual office building model that was created from an actual construction project. The study quantifies the environmental impact of steel and wood materials into nine categories, including Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, etc., by using life cycle inventory (LCI) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) analyses. The results of this study show that the wood structure building has greater impact on environment than the steel structure building at the end-of-life stage in four categories of (1) Acidification Potential, (2) Eutrophication Potential, (3) Ozone Depletion Potential, and (4) Smog Potential, but has less impact on other five categories with actually a positive environmental impact in the Global Warming potential. The results of this study can provide valuable information about the environmental impact of different materials to reduce the environmental impact at the end-of- life stage.
Abstract. In this study, a post-construction evaluation model was developed to identify the determinants of the long-term success of sustainable residential projects from users’ points of view. To do this, a primary model was developed based on the existing theories and models including measures adopted from LEED standards and UC Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environment (CBE) tool. The model included four predictor variables investigating the perceived performance of buildings, infrastructure, neighborhood, and economic aspects. The response variable was residential satisfaction as the determinant of long-term success. The data was collected through an online survey from the residents of LEED-certified residential communities in the USA (n=192). After validating the model through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the relationships between the independent and dependent variables were evaluated through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that the perceived building performance was the most influential factor in determining satisfaction followed by the perceived neighborhood design while perceived infrastructure performance and perceived cost performance did not show any significant effect in determining satisfaction. The findings benefit researchers by providing a model for the evaluation of the long- term performance of green buildings and providing opportunities for practitioners to determine priorities for future sustainable residential development projects.
Abstract. This project investigates roof efficiency designs in the southeastern United States homes by creating a workflow for efficient roofing design. For this purpose, multiple 3D models are generated with different floorplan sizes and lower roof heights from the original pitch. This is done to find the most effective pitch in cost and performance, while still satisfying codes and local regulations. A Building Information Modeling (BIM) software package from Autodesk (Revit) is employed in this process along with an add-on, Metal-Wood-Framer (MWF), to create detailed models of the involved structures. Then, due to its compatibility with Revit and its parametric energy analysis, the Autodesk Insight platform was selected to further analyze the models. Results from Autodesk Insight provided information on Energy Use Intensity (EUI) and cost mean while comparing against Architecture 2030 and ASHRAE 90.1 standards. The RS Means catalog was employed to estimate the cost of roof construction. In the modified models, the cost of roof construction is lower than in the original models because less material is needed. However, findings indicate that, in the modified models, the EUI and cost mean is higher than in the original models, which may be due to heat gain/losses and lack of ventilation.
Abstract. The potential to use recycled products in building methods and materials is important to consider. A problem exists in the recycling process where many city municipalities have removed glass recycling from their recycled waste stream forcing consumers to waste glass into a common waste stream for all waste. At Central Washington University (CWU), use of pulverized glass in concrete was analyzed to determine the difference in strength of the concrete when reducing the amount of virgin concrete sand in concrete as a material. With an applied research methodology, the researcher studied the effects of reducing virgin sand and replacing it with locally sourced pulverized glass. A control was used for a typical 3,000 psi concrete mix commonly found in structural concrete applications on roads, bridges, buildings, and foundations. Reductions in virgin sand were made at 25% and 50% and replaced with pulverized glass at the same percentage within the concrete mixture. Concrete compression tests were performed on three concrete 6-inch by 12- inch cylinder samples at the specified virgin sand and sand reduction levels using the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standards. Results showed an eleven percent (11%) and twelve percent (12%) reduction in concrete strength using pulverized glass for sand.
Abstract. Urbanization and the evolution of people's lifestyles have a significant impact on the quantity of waste that is generated and dumped each year. In addition, due to the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the use of masks has increased significantly, and the amount of plastic waste generation worldwide has doubled. These wastes have had a negative impact on the environment and have attracted the attention of many departments. Faced with both increasing amounts of generated plastic wastes and the growing interest of sustainability, the construction sectors must take an advantage using recycled plastic wastes in construction applications to reduce the negative impacts of the generated plastic wastes, while meeting future infrastructure demand. This study conducts a comprehensive analysis of the opportunities and challenges of plastic waste application in the construction industry. In this context the objective of the study is to (i) explore the most used plastic wastes in construction industry, (ii) explore potential application of plastic waste in construction industry, (iii) explore potential application of COVID-19 plastic waste in construction industry, (iv) outline challenges and opportunities involving the applications, and (v) Provide recommendations for advanced research required for plastic waste application in construction industry. It is concluded that the use of plastic waste in construction will significantly improve environmental sustainability, reduce the construction cost, improve the performance of construction, and serve as a reliable supply of construction materials. Finally, to overcome challenges areas for further research are also suggested.
Abstract. It is estimated that 1.6 billion people live in substandard housing, and more than 100 million people have no housing. In South Africa, about 12.7% of households lived in informal dwellings in 2019. This suggests that the existing conventional methods of construction and materials are incapable of solving the housing problems. The sandbag building material has been proposed as an affordable, sustainable, and recyclable alternative building material capable of accelerating housing provision in South Africa. However, previous studies show significant variations in filling materials used. There is also a lack of understanding of the sandbag wall based on the infill material. Therefore, this study examined the structural properties of the sandbag when filled with dune sand and crusher dust. Laboratory tests included compressive load on a three-bag stack, frictional shear strength between the interface of sandbags, and the structural stability of sandbag walls when subjected to vertical loading. A key finding was that although the displacement limits were reached before the bags failed, the bags of both fill materials could sustain compressive loads far beyond the ultimate design loads with large deflections in the bags. This suggests that the filled sandbags are not the determining factor in the design of sandbag structures.
Abstract. The history of undergraduate construction education in the United States has garnered faint attention by academics and little is known about construction programs in existence before the formation of the Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) in 1965. This study uses contemporary historical documents to identify construction programs that existed before the second world war, and programs created during or shortly after the war. A total of nine programs with courses related to the “building industry” are identified as being in operation prior to 1941 and 23 programs are identified as existing by 1946, and 36 programs by 1953. The research also identifies, and analyzes a study conducted by Arthur A. Hood of the Johns-Manville Company who has a major influence on establishing programs during and after the war. Over half of the institutions represented at the inception meeting of the ASC were identified as being established as a result of this study and the actions of Arthur A. Hood. There is a strong case to be made for Arthur A. Hood being the founding father of construction education in the United States.
Abstract. The COVID-19 pandemic caused massive disruption across the world, affecting all organizations. The Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) shifted its 2020 International Conference to a virtual, asynchronous event. In 2021, a virtual, synchronous ASC International Conference was sponsored by California State University-Chico and offered in April 2021. This study collected participant feedback on the 2021 virtual conference event to gage participation in a virtual event, determine perceptions of the online conference (as compared to an in-person event), and determine if there were aspects of the conference that could effectively be offered as a virtual or hybrid option in future ASC conferences. The results indicated that items such as the paper presentations could be effectively offered as virtual events in future conferences, and if a hybrid or virtual option was available, a significant portion of ASC members indicated that this would make them more inclined to participate in future conferences. Conversely, most respondents indicated that the conference was best held as an in-person event. Results suggests that although the in-person conference should continue, an opportunity may exist for ASC to broaden its engagement with construction education and further its mission to advance construction education.